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j^5-^-5B#i j2? m'^i^.^^ 










Pipliw/r -» s^. »i»' ^ 

Sarbarb (talltst ILi&rarg 






Principal Public School No. 53, Borough of Manhattan 
New York City 

Author of •* Dictation Day by Day " 

WelD gorfe 



AB rights reserved 





MARCH 17, 1927 

Copyright, 1916, 

Set up and electrotyped. Published March, 19x6. 

KortBooti 9ttM 

J. B. OuBhing Co. — Berwick & Smith Co. 

Norwood, Mass., U.S.A. 


The Modern Speller emphasizes the following points: 

Teaching Spelling by the Dictation Method. It is a well- 
known fact that children write a word correctly in a list, and 
write the same word incorrectly in a sentence. This difficulty 
exists because the sentence form is strange. When a pupil 
learns this, see, bally as a list, the spelling of these three words 
constitutes the sum of the information gained in that lesson; 
but if he writes. See this bail, he has taken the first step in com- 
position. It is because of this great gain that, in all modern 
schools, teachers are beginning to recognize the advantages of 
teaching spelling by the dictation method. 

Grading^ The exercises are carefully graded so that the 
vocabulary, the context, and the punctuation marks are suited 
to the needs and abilities of the pupils. In addition, each new 
lesson contains but a few new words, which are placed directly 
below the lessons. Every other word in the lesson is a review 

Reviews. The dictation method, requiring the constant repe- 
tition of small, troublesome words, linked with the close grading 
mentioned above, constitutes a natural review. In addition, 
reviews are inserted in the earlier years at the close of every 
fourth lesson. 

Meaning and Use of Words Taught from Text. As the 
average person obtains his knowledge of the meaning and use 
of words from reading, children should be urged and encouraged 
to learn the meaning of words, as far as possible, by reference 
to the context. 

iv Pref<ue 

Interesting Content. The subjects interest the pupU, and 
pave the way for superior composition work. Some literary- 
exercises are introduced, but they have not been permitted to 
overshadow the fact that the Modem Speller is designed pri- 
marily to teach spelling. 

These lessons were used in manuscript form for several terms. 
The teachers put the exercises on the blackboard, and the chil- 
dren copied them for home study. It was found, however, that 
this method wasted time. A far weightier objection was the 
fact that in classes, even of careful teachers, many children 
made mistakes in copying. They therefore studied them in- 
correctly ; so that the teacher, besides dealing with legitimate 
difficulties, bore the added burden of eradicating errors that 
were firmly fixed in the pupil's mind. To overcome these 
two difficulties, a book was prepared so that every child might 
have a printed page from which to study. 

Thanks are due the following authors and publishers for permis- 
sion to use copyrighted material : To Harper Brothers for the se- 
lections from Margaret Sangster's "Little Knights and Ladies" 
and for the selections from Charles H. Ham's " Manual Training " ; 
to D. Appleton & Co. for the selections from William C. Bryant ; 
to the Presbyterian Board of Publication of Sabbath School 
Work for the selection from Henry van Dyke's " Open Door." 

The selection from " Gradatim " by J. G. Holland and the 
selection from " El Dorado " by Robert L. Stevenson are used 
by permission of Charles Scribner's Sons. 

The selections from Longfellow, Lowell, Holmes, and Whittier 
are used by permission of Houghton Mifflin Company. 

The author wishes to acknowledge the material aid given by 
Anna Mulligan, Assistant to Principal in Public School 53, in 
the preparation of the work for the Seventh Year. 


The lessons that form a connected narrative may be used 
as a basis for composition lessons. If properly presented, they 
stimulate the children to read the entire book on which the exer- 
cises are based. 

In the grades where the review lists occur, the week's work 
consists of four dictation lessons and the review list immediately 
following. This can be accomplished by giving three or four 
review words with each day's dictation, leaving Friday for review. 

The new words in each lesson have been placed below the 
dictation exercise. Every other word is a review word; con- 
sequently the review is constant, even when there are no formal 

Whenever unusual proper names, as Dauphin, Proserpina, 
etc., have not been placed below the dictation, it is wise to put 
them on the blackboard and permit them to remain there during 
the writing of the lesson. 

Funk & Wagnalls' Standard Dictionary is the authority used 
in this book for spelling and syllabication. 



1. Live for something. Write your name in kindness, 
love, and mercy on the hearts of thousands you come in 
contact with year by year, and you will never be forgotten. 

— Chalmers. 

some'thing mer'cy con'tact 

kind'ness mer'cies for got'ten 

2. In City Hall Park, New York, there is a statue of the 
yoimg patriot, Nathan Hale. Have you ever heard why 
this monument was erected to his memory? 

stat'ue mon'u ment mem'o ry 

pa'tri ot e rect'ed mem'o ries 

3. During the Revolution Washington wished to obtain 
some information about General Howe's plans. As Cap- 
tain Hale was famous for his bravery, he was chosen to go 
to the enemy's camp. 

Rev o lu'tion Wash'ing ton ob tain' 

in for ma'tion cho'sen 

4. It required great courage to venture inside the enemy's 
lines, but Hale did not hesitate. He probably thought he 
would return in safety. 

re quired' cour'age in side' hes'i tate prob'a bly 

2 Fifth Year — First Half 

. Review 

accounts excellent injured instantly copies 

conduct accustomed excited failure invalid 

informed constantly continent anxious famous 

5. Captain Hale was imable to accomplish his piupose, 
for he was arrested by the English, tried, and sentenced 
to be hanged. He met his death with the same courage 
that had marked his life. 

im a^ble ac com'phsh puj'pose ar rest'ed hanged 

6. Though he was not permitted to write to his mother, 
he uttered no word of complaint. When the moment for his 
sacrifice arrived, he said, "I regret that I have but one life 
to lose for my coimtry." 

per mit' ut'tered sac'ri fice lose 

per mit'ted com plaint' re gret' 

7. Greatly begin ! though thou have time 
But for a line, be that sublime. 

Not failure, but low aim, is crime. 

— James Russell Lowell. 

greatly thou sub lime' crime 

Language work. Write in a column all the adjectives on this 
page. Opposite each adjective in a second column show how many 
of them may be changed to adverbs. 

Fifth Year — First Half 3 

8. Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at 
the price of chains and slavery ? Forbid it, Almighty (Jod ! 
I know not what course others may take, but as for me, 
give me Hberty or give me death ! -Patrick Henry. 

peace sla'ver y 
pur'chased al might'y 

lib'er ty 
lib'er ties 




arrived janitor 
coimtry asparagus 
famihar cranberry 








9. Our coimtry, which is called the United States of 
America, was originally a dense forest where cities and 
railroads were entirely unknown. Can you picture the 
deep woods and silent rivers of those early days? 

U ni'ted States o rig'i nal ly dense rail'roads un known' 

10. When Colimibus reached America, he foimd it in- 
habited by a copper-colored race whom he called Indians. 
Many of these singular people gathered round the white 
men and gazed at them in astonishment. 

in hab'it ed 
sin'gu lar 


a ston'ish ment 

Language work. Make a list of the nouns found in the lessons 
on this page. Classify these nouns as common and proper. 

Fifth Year — First Half 

11. These red men lived in huts or wigwams made of 
birch bark. From this bark they also made their canoes, 
which were light in weight and most beautiful in appearance. 


ca noe 
ca noes' 


ap pear'ance 

12. They lived by himting and fishing. They were not 
very industrious, though they raised some com and tobacco. 
In many ways they were like children. They often traded 
valuable furs for a handful of brilliant beads. 

in dus'tri ous to bac'co 


val'u a ble 




beneath length 




currant birth 




fortime curtain 




13. The Indians at their worst were cruel and unforgiv- 
ing, but they had great pride, and therefore never showed 
by their expression that they felt pain, anger, or sorrow. 
What do you think of this side of their character? 


ex pres sion 

sor row 
char'ac ter 

Language work. Learn the comparison of the following ad- 
jectives : 

great greater greatest 

bad, or ill worse worst 

Fifth Year — First Half 5 

14. Some day I hope you will have the opportunity of 
reading Helen Hunt Jackson's charming story of Indian 
life, called "Ramona." In addition to this piece of prose 
we have a poem, "The Song of Hiawatha," which we es- 
pecially love. 

op por tu'ni ty charm'ing prose 

op por tu'ni ties ad di'tion es pe'cial ly 

15. Forth into the forest straightway 
All alone walked Hiawatha 
Proudly, with his bow and arrows ; 
And the birds sang roimd him, o'er him, 
"Do not shoot us, Hiawatha." • 

— H. W. Longfellow. 

straight'way Hi a wa'tha proudly 

16. Saw the rainbow in the heaven, 
Whispered, "What is that, Nokomis?" 
And the good Nokomis answered : 
"All the wild flowers of the forest. 

All the liUes of the prairie, 

When on earth they fade and perish. 

Blossom in that heaven above us." 

— H. W. Longfellow. 

rainTbow prai'rie lil'y 

an'swered per'ish lil'ies 

6 Fifth Year— First Half 


boroughs meadows medicine furniture directed 
delicate breath brought merrily general 

freight frozen difficult builders minute 

17. Ceres was the goddess of grains and flowers. One 
pleasant morning her daughter Proserpina said, "Mother, 
I beseech you let me walk across the fields. I believe I can 
find a crocus or a hyacinth or perhaps some lilacs." 

be seech' a cross' cro'cus hy'a cinth li'lacs 

18. "You may go," said Ceres, "but it is dangerous to 
venture far from home, as you may meet with some acci- 
dent." Proserpina hastened out into the simlight and be- 
gan to amuse herself by picking flowers. 

dan'ger ous ac'ci dent ha'stened a muse' her self' 

19. Proserpina did not mean to be bad or disobedient, 
but she went farther and farther from home. She smelled 
the fragrance of the flowers and for several hours entirely 
forgot her mother's advice. 

dis o be'di ent far'ther smelled f ra'grance ad vice' 

Distinguishing phonetic sounds. Copy all the words on this page 
that contain the letter c and mark q all those that have the sound 
of 5. Wherever the c has the sound of ^, underline the letter. 

Fifth Year — First Half 

20. Finally with a rumbling noise, Pluto emerged from 
the earth in a chariot drawn by four coal-black horses. He 
seized the yoimg giri's trembling form and bore her to the 
lower worid. 


e merged' 
char'i ot 




busily misery geography dropping cattle 

discern capital monkey glancing d3dng 

gentleman discovered carriage moving necessary 

21. When Ceres heard this she was very angry, and de- 
clared that Pluto must return her child immediately, other- 
wise not a stalk of grain should ever grow upon the surface 
of the earth. 

de clared' im me'di ate ly oth'er wise stalk sur'face 

22. At last a messenger went to Jupiter and begged him 
to persuade Pluto to release Proserpina, before the earth 
entirely dried up. Jupiter said, "If she has eaten nothing 
in the lower world, she may return to her mother.'' 

mes sen ger 
per suade' 


re lease' 

Language work. Rewrite the last sentence in 22, expressing the 
thought correctly without the use of quotation marks. 

8 Fifth Year— First Half 

23. Proserpina had eaten six seeds while in Pluto's dismal 
home. This was done through ignorance, and consequently 
Jupiter determined not to be too harsh. He said she need 
remain with Pluto but six months in each year. 

dis'mal ig'no ranee con'se quent ly de ter'mined 


24. Ceres always celebrates her daughter's return from 
the lower world by changing the entire aspect of the earth. 
When Ceres begins to beautify the land, we may be sure 
she is getting ready to greet her daughter. 

celebrates change beau'tify get 

as'pect chan'ging greet get'ting 


cause noble happiness eastern chocolate 

eagerly cheerful nobody harvest headache 

handsome earliest chiefly nurse oar 

26. So here hath been dawning another blue day 1 
Think ! Wilt thou let it slip useless away? 
Out of eternity this new day was bom. 
Into eternity at night will return. 

— Thomas Carlyle. 

hath wilt slip use'less eter'nity 

Language work. Compare useless. 

Fifth Year — First Half 

26. Lost yesterday, somewhere between sunrise and sun- 
set, two golden hours each set with sixty diamond minutes. 
No reward is offered, because they are gone forever. 

— Horace Mann. 



sim'set re ward' offered 

27. OKver brought a note asking his teacher to excuse 
him for being tardy. On his way to the bakery for a loaf 
of bread, he lost his nickel and was obliged to return home 
for another. 

on ver 

ex cuse' tar'dy ba'ker y 




One by one thy duties wait thee. 
Let thy whole strength go to each. 
Let no future dreams elate thee. 
Learn thou first what these can teach. 

— A. A. Procter. 



e late' 






enjoy established 




importance industry 




officers ordered 

Use of dictionary. Make a list of the review words in alphabetic 
order. Consult the dictionary to define and pronounce each word.. 

lo Fifth Year — First Half 

29. Thomas Jefferson was the third president of the 
United States. He was bom in Virginia, and like all south- 
em gentlemen, addressed every one in a most polite and 
agreeable manner. 

pres'ident Virgin'ia south'ern addressed' agree'able 

30. One day as Jefferson was walking through his estate 
with his grandson, he observed that one of his slaves raised 
his cap and bowed pohtely as they passed. The master 
returned the salute. 

grand'son ob served' slaves mas'ter sa lute' 

31. The grandson scarcely seemed to have an idea that 
the servant was there. Noticing his careless conduct, 
Jefferson said, "Thomas, do you permit a slave to be more 
of a gentleman than you are?" 

scarce'ly serv'ant no'tice 

i de'a care'less no' tic ing 

32. Last Wednesday I went to the grocer's for some 
sweet biscuit, four bunches of radishes, a box of rasp- 
berries, and three ounces of ginger. As these things cost 
eighty-five cents, what change did I receive from two 

bis'cuit rasp'ber ry oun'ces 

rad'ishes rasp'ber ries gin'ger 

Fifth Year — First Half 



patient appeared thousand scarlet piazza 

reported peninsula approached toilet scratched 

teasing sailors arithmetic piano beautiful 

33. O blackbird ! sing me something well. 

While all the neighbors shoot thee roimd, 
I keep smooth plats of fruitful ground, 
Where thou may'st warble, eat, and dwell. 

— Alfred Tennyson. 

black'bird smooth 




34. Oh, the doll's house ! It was a stone-fronted mansion 
with real glass windows and a real balcony. There were 
three distinct rooms in it; a sitting-room and a bedroom 
elegantly furnished and a little kitchen. 

— Charles Dickens. 

dis tinct' 

bal'co ny 
bal'co nies 

el'e gant ly 

36. Whenever I buy bacon, beef, mutton, or veal I go to 
the store of J. B. Frank & Co. whose meat is both cheap 
and good. As they treat their customers well, I am sure 
they do an excellent business. 





cus'tom ers 


Fifth Year — First Half 

36. When Mr. Bird goes to the city, he will find that 
conductors give transfers only at the time passengers pay 
their fare. I believe this rule was made because many dis- 
honest people tried to cheat the company. 

conduct'ors trans'fers pas'sengers dishon'est cheat 

















37. One morning about eleven o'clock, Edith decided to 
make a cake as soon as the oven was hot. "This large 
bowl," said her aunt, "is the one to use when you put the 
flour through the sieve." 


de cid'ed 




38. A wind came up out of the sea. 

And said, "0 mists, make room for me." 
It said unto the forest, "Shout ! 
Hang all your leafy banners out !" 
It touched the wood-bird's folded wing. 
And said, "O bird, awake and sing." 

— Henry W. Longfellow. 





a wake' 

Fifth Year — First Half 


39. Does your sister ever order groceries by postal? 
Thursday I sent for a poimd of cheese, a box of sardines, 
and two quarts of molasses. To-day the grocer said that 
he had not received my message. 

gro'cery post'al sardines' molas'ses 

gro'cer ies cheese mes'sage 

40. I once heard a blind man say, "What do you think 
I'd give to know what my mother's face looks Uke ? " When 
impatient or inclined to grumble, compare your lot with his 
and try to imagine how he felt. 

impa'tient inclined' grum'ble compare' imag'ine 


position business unseen shepherd prepared 
serves possess captain vacation shopping 

unit shadow possible careful celery 

41. Before you leave the grammar school, I hope you 
will read "The Life of Laura Bridgman." When two 
years old, scarlet fever deprived her of both sight and 
hearing. This book will explain to you how she was 

Lau'ra fe'ver deprived' explain' instruct'ed 

14 Fifth Year — First Half 

42. It may astonish you to know that she received her 
education entirely through the sense of touch. On several 
articles, such as forks, knives, and spoons, were placed the 
names of the objects in raised letters. 

a ston'ish ed u caption ar'ti cles knife 

ob'ject sense knives 

43. Laura examined these labels imtil she recognized the 
difference between them. Then she was given similar 
labels on separate pieces of paper, and she placed the word 
"fork" on the fork, and the word "spoon" on the spoon. 

ex am'ined la'bels rec'og nized differ ence 

sim'i lar 

44. These exercises were repeated, imtil she finally per- 
ceived that by means of these signs she could commimi- 
cate her thoughts to others. She then became so inter- 
ested that she studied constantly. 

ex'er ci ses com mu'ni cate per ceived' 
re peat'ed in'ter est ed 


pretend certainly violent 
silence promptly circles 
vessel simple proverb 

spinach public 
visitor spoken 
colors complete 

Fifth Year — First Half 15 

45. Her brain soon became very active, and she was 
taught grammar, and arithmetic through fractions. She 
gained a knowledge of geography from a raised map. She 
was fond of sewing and knitting and never spent an idle 

brain knowledge knit 

act'ive i'dle knit'ting 

46. Her judgment of distances was very accurate. She 
had the ability to walk straight toward a door, put out her 
hand at the proper time, and grasp the handle. 

judg'ment ac'curate abil'ity propter grasp 

47. Laura Bridgman received her education at Perkins 
Institute in Boston. Her peculiar case aroused an immense 
amount of interest, because she was the first deaf, diunb, 
and blind person to be taught the use of language. 

in'stitute pecul'iar aroused' immense' dumb 

48. My crown is in my heart, not on my head. 
Not decked with diamonds and Indian stones. 
Nor to be seen. My crown is called content : 
A crown it is that seldom kings enjoy. 

— Shakespeare. 

crown decked stones sel'dom 

1 6 Fifth Year— First Half 


pumpkin consider wealth steamers reason 
spread putting curve weather welcome 

warmth square questions daily deliver 

49. A good deed is never lost. He who sows courtesy 
reaps friendship ; and he who plants kindness gathers love. 

— Basil. 

sows reaps friend'ship 

It is as easy to draw back a stone thrown from the hand 

as to recall a word once spoken. 

— Menander. 

thrown re call' 

60. " Come," cried the mouse, " let's play hide-and-seek ! " 
Then all the funny Uttle mice began to run through the 
cellar, till suddenly their play was interrupted by what 
seemed to be a horrible giant. 

fim'ny ceHar interrupt'ed hor'rible gi'ant 

61. Aimt Helen and her two nieces were obliged to wait 
an hour for a train at a small mountain village. "Oh, 
Elsie,'' cried Emma at last, "see that smoke! It surely 
must be the engine that has just come through the tunnel !" 

nie'ces El'sic smoke en'gine tim'nel 

Fifth Year — First Half 17 

52. As Virginia entered the dining-room she saw a 
butterfly on the ceiling. "Would you really believe," said 
she, "that this beautiful shining creature was ever a horrid 

di'ning-room hor'rid cat'er pillar shine 
ceil'ing re'al ly shinning 


received describe wholly subject regular 

stretches recite destroyed wreck yourself 

western style refreshed easy enemy 

63. If solid happiness we prize, 

Within our breast this jewel lies, 
And they are fools who roam. 
The world has nothing to bestow ; 
From our own selves our joys must flow. 
And that dear hut, our home. 

— Nathaniel Cotton. 

sol'id prize breast roam selves 

54. As soon as my brother graduates from college, mother 
will take the children to Atlantic City for the bathing. 
She says that I must remain here until after promotion, as 
I cannot afford to lose so much time from school. 

grad'u ates college ba' thing pro mo'tion af ford' 

i8 Fifth Year—First Half 

66. There are many forms of amusement at Atlantic 
City. My brother, who is a fearless swimmer, often goes 
to the end of the long piers. Margaret and I are fond of 
watching the surf from the board walk. 

a muse'ment swim piers 

fear'less swim'mer surf 

66. Have you ever seen one of those huge old-fashioned 
bedsteads that used to be found in every household? 
Mother often describes the one which she remembers, with 
its four tall posts and snowy musUn curtains. 

huge oid-fash'ioned bed'steads houseTiold 














5 suppose 




67. Balboa was a Spanish subject who came to America 
in search of gold. After a long stormy voyage he landed 
at the Isthmus of Panama, and with several comrades 
began to explore the country. 

Span'ish voy'age isth'mus 

Pan a ma' com'rades ex plore' 

Fifth Year — First Half 


68. Some friendly Indians told them of a wonderful 
coimtry beyond the mountains. Although wild beasts 
often threatened to devour them, nevertheless they con- 
tinued their journey across the isthmus. 

won'der f ul al though' threat'ened 

con tin'ued 

de vour' 

69. When they reached a great height and looked down 
upon the glistening waters of the Pacific Ocean, Balboa felt 
that no man had ever made a more glorious discovery than 


Pa cif ic 
glo'ri ous 

dis cov'er y 
dis coVer ies 

60. In his youth Lincoln was clerk for a small village 
merchant. He once gave a customer the wrong change, 
and when he found his mistake, he hastily closed the store 
and walked miles to correct his error. 


ha'sti ly 

cor rect' 

heavens replied 

known hurried 

naughty lettuce 


neither oyster 
search seize 
mischief kitchen 
more hastily 

most hastily 


1. Don't waste your life in doubts and fears. Spend 
yourself on the work before you, well assured that the 
right performance of this hour's duties will be the best 
preparation for the hours or ages that follow it. 

— Ralph W. Emerson. 

doubts assured' perform'ance prepara'tion a'ges 

2. It is only in some comer of the brain which we leave 

empty, that Vice can obtain a lodging. When he knocks 

at your door, be able to say, "No room for your lordship, 

pass on!" 

— BuLWER Lytton. 

lodge lodg'ing lord'ship 

, 3. Do not keep alabaster boxes of your love and tender- 
ness sealed up imtil your friends are dead. Bring them 
out now and open them, that they may be refreshed and 
cheered by the perfxmies of sympathy and affection. 

— Margaret Sangster. 

al'a bas ter sealed sjon'pa thy 

ten'der ness per'fimies af f ec'tion 

Fifth Year — Second Half 21 

4. Hope is a pleasant acquaintance, but an unsafe friend. 
Hope is not the man for your banker, but he may do very 
well for a traveling companion. 

— Thomas C. Haliburton. 

ac quaint'ance bank'er com pan'ion 

im safe' trav'el ing 


accident institution fashion courage course 
conductor addition instructed fever forgotten 

farther continued addressing advice interrupted 

6. I count this thing to be grandly true, 
That a noble deed is a step toward God, 
Lifting the soul from the common sod 
To a purer air and a broader view. 

— J. G. Holland. 

grandly soul sod pur'er broad'er 

6. Ships from foreign ports enter the harbor of the City 
of New York through a channel at Sandy Hook. They are 
then in the Lower Bay, which has such a large area that an 
immense fleet could be anchored there. 

for'eign chan'nel a'rea fleet an'chored 
Suggestion : Syllabicate all review words. 


Fifth Year — Second Half 

7. From the Lower Bay ships pass to the Upper Bay, 
through a picturesque strait called the Narrows. This 
magnificent harbor contains Governor's Island, EUis Island, 
and Bedloe's Island, which is crowned with a colossal 

pic tur esque' 

mag nif 'i cent 
gov'em or 

CO los'sal 

8. This lofty figure is called "Liberty Enlightening the 
World." It was designed by Bartholdi and was given to 
the United States by the French Republic. 


en light'en ing 
de signed' 

re pub'lic 


customer although judgment furnished deprived 

fragrance dangerous amusement knitting giant 

isthmus friendship decided answered knowledge 

9. This gift was designed to commemorate the one hun- 
dredth anniversary of American independence. It was not 
placed in position however, till 1885, and was not dedi- 
cated till 1886. Have you ever read Whittier's poem on 
this subject ? 

com mem'o rate 

an m ver sa ry 
in de pend'ence 

ded'i ca ted 

Fifth Year — Second Half 23 

10. Unlike the shapes on Eg3^t's sands 
Uplifted by the toil-worn slave, 
On freedom's soil with freemen's hands 
We rear the symbol free hands gave. 

imlike' shapes uplift'ed free'men sym'bol 

11. Rise, stately symbol ! holding forth 
Thy light and hope to all who sit 

In chains and darkness ! Belt the earth 
With watch-fires from thy torch uplit. 

— J. G. WmxTiER. 

state'ly' dark'ness torch uplit' 

12. Religion is something which a man cannot invent for 
himself, nor keep to himself. If it does not show in his 
conduct, it does not exist in his heart. Good citizens, honest 
workmen, cheerful comrades, — that is what the product of 
religion should be. 

— Henry van Dyke. 

re lig'ion in vent' ex ist' cit'i zens prod'uct 

















24 Fifth Year -^Second Half 

13. "Marion," said her sister as she beckoned to her, 
"let's steal out toward the woods and gather some trailing 
arbutus. I am sure I saw several sprays down near the 
old foimtain." 

_ Ma'rion steal sprays 

beck'oned ar bu'tus f oim'tain 

14. Last Saturday my brother took me to see the game 
between Harvard and Yale. "Be sure," said mother, 
" that you do not lose either your gloves or your handkerchief 
in that great crowd, for I cannot provide you with new 

HarVard gloves pro vide' 

Yale hand'ker chief 

16. During colonial days, the Liberty Bell was brought 
from England to Philadelphia and was recast, at which 
time the following words were inscribed upon it: "Pro- 
claim liberty throughout all the land imto all the inhabit- 
ants thereof." 

CO lo'ni al re cast' pro claim' 

Phil a del'phi a in scribed' 

Language work. Write the following words, and beside each one 
write a word of opposite meaning : gather, near, great, days, liberty, 
land, disobedient, teach,' teacher, employed. 

Fiftji Year — Second Half 


16. This bell first proclaimed the adoption of the Decla- 
ration of Independence, July 4, 1776. It was rung an- 
nually until the metal finally cracked. It was then placed 
in the State House where its echoes are forever silent. 

a dop'tion 
dec la ra'tion 

an'nu al ly 



bathing memory hastened 

biscuit bedstead memories 

groceries distinct disobedient 

diunb bowl 
hastily eaten 
merchant height 

17. Helen Keller, whose marvelous life resembles that 
of Laura Bridgman, was bom in 1880 in a small southern 
town. When she was a baby, a serious iUness closed 
forever the two gateways of knowledge, — sight and 

mar Vel ous re sem'bles se'ri ous ill'ness gate'ways 

18. Her mother read of the means employed to teach 
Laura Bridgman, so she applied to Perkins Institute and 
there procured a teacher. At that time Helen was seven 
years old and a very sensitive and retiring child. 

em ployed' 

ap plied' 

pro cured' 
sen'si tive 

re tire' 
re tir'ing 

26 Fifth Year — Second Half 

19. The teacher who was engaged to instruct Helen, 
commenced the traming by giving her a doll. Then the 
word "doll" was frequently spelled into Helen's hand, 
imtil it occurred to the child that this was the name of 
the object. 

en gaged' com menced' fre'quent ly oc cur' oc curred' 

20. She had great difficulty in learning "mug" and 
"water." She constantly confused them, though her 
teacher with the utmost patience, endeavored to explain 
which was which. 

dif 'fi cul ty con fused' ut'most pa'tience en deav'ored 


brilliant molasses horrible huge engine 

education caterpillar ceiling muslin hyacinth 

hesitate Edith elegant celebrate niece 

21. One day as they passed a well, the teacher guided 
Helen to the spout, and as the stream gushed against the 
child's hand, she spelled "water" into the other. At 
once the mystery of language seemed to dawn upon the 

guid'ed gushed mys'ter y 

spout a gainst' mys'ter ies 

Fifth Year — Second Half 


22. She needed iio further urgmg to leam. Her teacher 
was often compelled to restrain her eager search for knowl- 
edge. During her first sea bath she inquired, "Who put 
salt into the water?" 

fur'ther inquired' urge compel' 

re strain' ur'ging com pelled' 

23. When she was ten years old, she was taught to speak. 
She was continually practicing soxmds of all kinds, and when 
her earnest efforts met with success she said, "Now I feel 
as though I were let out of prison." 

con tin'u al ly 

prac'tic ing 

sue cess 

24. When Helen was twenty, she passed her examina- 
tion for college, using a typewriter to do the work. She now 
speaks and reads French and German. Does not the story 
of her success create a feeling of admiration for her sublime 
courage ? 

ex am i na'tion 



mi ra'tion 

type'wri ter 

ere ate' 

cellar noticing 




error character 




idea especially 




28 Fifth Year — Second Half 

26. Many of the artists whose works are on exhibition in 
our museums, acquired their reputations in the coimtries of 
Europe. Most of them believe, therefore, that one must 
study art in the Old World. 

art'ists ex hi bi'tion mu se'iuns ac quired' rep u ta'tion 

26. The purest treasure mortal times afford 
Is spotless reputation ; that away 

Men are but gilded loam or painted clay. 
Mine honor is my life ; both grow in one. 
Take honor from me and my life is done. 

— Shakespeare. 

mor'tal spotless gild'ed loam hon'or 

27. A Persian philosopher being asked by what method 
he had acquired so much knowledge, answered, "By not 
being prevented by shame from asking questions where I 
was ignorant." 

phi los'o pher pre vent'ed ig'no rant 

meth'od shame 

28. Have you ever seen a funeral in any foreign coimtry? 
As the carriages move onward to the place of burial, men on 
the streets and even in the cars, remove their hats and 
pause for a moment until the procession passes. 

fu'ner al on'ward bur'i al re move' pro ces'sion 

Fifth Year — Second Half 29 


chosen opportunity impatient explain comrade 
exercise industrious oimces cities expression 

immense excuse college yard quart 

29. A sacred burden is this life ye bear ; 
Look on it, lift it, bear it solemnly ; 
Stand up and walk beneath it steadfastly. 
Fail not for sorrow, falter not for sin, 
But onward, upward, till the goal ye win. 

— Frances A. Kemble. 

sa'cred sol'emnly stead'fastly fal'ter goal 

SO. Mother goes to the dry goods stores every Friday, 
because that is bargain day. I shall leave here at two 
o'clock to-day, and go with her to choose a flannel waist and 
a waterproof to wear to school. 

bar'gain choose flan'nel waist wa'ter proof 

31. Last week we bought several small articles, such as 
scissors and buttons, which we took home. Finally we 
bought nineteen yards of calico. "If I send this parcel," 
said the salesman, "you may not receive it imtil Monday.'' 

scis'sors cal'i co sales'man 

but'tons par'cel sales'men 


Fifth Year — Second Half 

32. From the earliest times, men have wondered whether 
it would ever be possible to imitate the flight of birds. 
Varieties of balloons have been made, but each one is kept 
up by means of a bag filled with gases. 

im'i tate 

va ri'et y 
va ri'et ies 

bal loons' 

pint company 

raspberry bushel 
transfer really 


tremble txmnel repeated 

cranberry gallon valuable 

recognized inches currant 

33. Every airship also has a gas bag to hold it up, but the 
aeroplane is driven by a benzine motor. It is as easily 
controlled in the air as an automobile is on the earth. 

a'er o plane 
ben zine' 


au to mo bile' 

con trol' 
con trolled' 

34. For ten years the Wright brothers have been work- 
ing at these curious machines, and while they have met with 
several dreadful accidents, they do not despair. Do you 
believe that some day aeroplanes will be as common as 

Wright cu'ri ous ma chines' 

de spair' 


Fifth Year — Second Half 31 

36. Some of your hurts you have cured, 

And the sharpest you still have survived, 

But what torments of grief you endured 

From evils which never arrived. 

— Emerson. • 

survived' tor'ments grief endured' e'vils 

36. For many years our national government has been 
controlled either by the Republican or by the Democratic 
party. There are several other political parties in the 
United States. Can you mention some of them? 

na'tion al 
gov'em ment 

Re pub'lic an 
Dem o crat'ic 

po lit'ic al 


peck daughter Virginia reward week 

required minute death voyage sacrifice 

veal Revolution hour delicate difficult 

37. The teacher wrote a declarative sentence on the 
blackboard, and then called Alice to the front of the room. 
"Underline the adjective," said she, "and use the colored 
chalk to do it.'' 

de clar'a tive black'board front ad'jec tive 


Language work. Give the reason for the use of each capital 
on this page. 

32 Fifth Year— Second Half 

38. There are so many different ways of forming the 
plurals of nouns, that I sometimes confuse them. During 
the next grammar lesson, I intend to make an attempt to 
understand the explanation of the rules. 

plu'rals noims intend' attempt' explana'tion 

39. The inventor, Thomas A. Edison, was bom in Ohio ; 
while at school he showed no signs of the genius for which 
he is remarkable. Before he was nine years old however, 
he read, with his mother's assistance, many books on 

in vent'or re mark'a ble e lee tric'i ty 

ge'ni us as sist'ance 

40. When he was eleven, he began to earn his. living by 
selling newspapers on a railway train. His business grew 
so rapidly, that he soon employed a helper. Then he 
spent his time making experiments in the baggage car. 

live news'papers rap'idly bag'gage 

liv'ing rail'way ex per'i ments 

Language work. Write a composition on the life of Thomas A. 
Edison, but instead of using the condensed material on these pages, 
consult "Thomas A. Edison," by Francis Rolt- Wheeler, in the 
True Stories of Great Americans Series, or some other life of the 




Fifth Year — Second Half 


directed wonderful aflfected shining 
dollar quarter dropping anxious 

scarcely servant dozen English 


41. He always took a great interest in the work of the 
telegraph operators at the various stations, and longed for 
a favorable opportunity to learn the business. 

tel'e graph 
op'er a tors 

va n ous 

f aVor a ble 

42. One day while waiting for a train, Edison looked in the 
direction of the track, and saw the operator's child play- 
ing in the path of an approaching locomotive. Luckily he 
rescued her, and in return the operator taught him teleg- 

di rec'tion 
lo CO mo'tive 

luck'i ly 

tel eg'ra phy 

43. In less than the ordinary length of time, he became an 
expert operator. He went to New York, and with scarcely 
a penny in his pocket walked the streets, imtil he was at- 
tracted by a crowd of workmen in a broker's oflBice. 

or'di na ry 


at tract'ed 

34 Fifth Year — Second Half 

44. One of the instruments used for sending stock quo- 
tations had broken down, and the men had spent hours try- 
ing to locate the trouble. In a flash Edison saw what was 
the matter, and to everybody's amazement corrected it at 

in'stru ments lo'cate mat'ter 

quo tactions flash a maze'ment 

46. One of the members of the firm thereupon offered Edi- 
son a salary of three hxmdred dollars a month. He then be- 
gan to prosper, as he had sufficient money to perfect those 
wonderful schemes, which were forever passing through his 

mem'bers sal'a ry pros'per suf fi'cient schemes 

46. Edison perfected the Bell telephone and the electric 
light. He also invented the phonograph and many instru- 
ments used in telegraphy. "Every invention with which 
my name is connected," said Edison to a friend, "has been 
the result of months of patient toil." 

tel'e phone pho'no graph re suit' 

e lec'tric in ven'tion 

Practice in alphabetical arrangement. Write all the words on 
this page in strictly alphabetical order, as they would appear in a 

Fifth Year — Second Half 


47. The great gulf between the savage and the civil- 
ized man is spanned by the seven liand-tools, — the ax, the 
saw, the plane, the hammer, the square, the chisel, and 

the file. 

— Charles H. Ham. 

gulf civ'ilized spanned plane chis'el 

48. "Man," Carlyle says, "is a tool-using animal. He 
can use tools, can devise tools; with these the granite 
moimtains melt into light dust before him ; he kneads iron 
as if it were soft paste." 





perceived permitted favorite boroughs Spanish 

beneath somewhere persuade freight builders 

fraction Blanche southern postal furniture 

49. We ought, therefore, respect the mason, the carpen- 
ter, the miner, the farmer, — all those who toil with their 
hands. Charles H. Ham says, "Since man owes so much 
to labor, should he not educate the laborer and shower 
honors upon him?" 

re spect' car'pen ter Charles owes la'bor er 

36 Fifth Year — Second Half 

60. To use the hands in making quicklime into mortar, 

is better than to cross them on the breast in attendance on 

a prince. 

— Sadi. 

quick'lime mor'tar at tend'ance 

61. A servant with this clause. 
Makes drudgery divine : 

Who sweeps a room as for Thy laws, 
Makes that and the action fine. 

— George Herbert. 

clause drudg'er y di vine' 

62. A lady while entertaining Turner, one of the most 
celebrated EngKsh painters, implored him to tell her what 
his secret was. "I have no secret. Madam," he replied, 
"but hard work." 

en ter tain'ing 
cel'e bra ted 

im plored' 



prairie general 
statue president 
busily strength 




carriage swimmer 
headache cheerful 
promotion histories 

celebrated more celebrated 

most celebrated 

Fifth Year — Second Half 37 

63. It is not work that kills men ; it is worry. Work is 
natural. You can hardly put more upon a man than he 
can bear. Worry is rust upon the blade. It is not the 
revolution that destroys the machinery, but friction. 

— Henry Ward Beecher. 

wor'ry hardly fric'tion 

nat'u ral ma chin'er y 

54. As Emily knew how to manage the gas range, she 
cooked some steak for supper. I am sure she spoiled the 
salad dressing, however, by using too much vinegar. 

man'age steak sal'ad 

range spoiled vin'e gar 

55. Little Margaret, whose parents were both buried in 
a cemetery near her home, always spoke of them as sleep- 
ing in " God's Acre." Each week she placed a fresh bouquet 
of choicest flowers upon their graves. 

bur'y cem'e ter y bou quet' 

bur'ied a'cre choi'cest 

Note to teacher. Explain each new word when lesson is assigned, 
calling attention to anything that will help fix the word in the pupil's 
mind. For instance show the word " chin " in machinery and " vine " 
in vinegar. 


Fifth Year — Second Half 

66. As Mrs. Morris walked down Tremont Street, she 
noticed a little child with a shawl over her head, gazing 
timidly into a florist's window. When she pressed a lovely 
scariet geranium into the girl's hand, the child was overcome 
with joy. 

tim'id ly 



ge ra m um 





chocolate tobacco 




janitor coast 




rapidly knocked 

67. One pleasant autiunn day Henry sat in the orchard 
watching the brook, as it flowed peacefully over the pebbles. 
"Where are you going, little brook?" said he, but the 
brook only answered, as it sparkled on, " Good-by ! Good- 
by! Good-by!" 

or'chard peace'fully peb'bles sparkled 


Suggestion: Before the pupils leave the fifth year, teach 
thoroughly the abbreviations for every state in the Union. Abbrevia- 
tions are an important part of letter writing, and letter writing is one 
end of dictation work. 

Fifth Year — Second Half 


68. Such a toothache as Tommy had ! He cried and he 
cried and he cried. Then mother put some camphor on 
the tooth, and drawing the sofa toward the radiator, wrapped 
Tommy up and made him very comfortable. 


ra'di a tor 


com'f ort a ble 

69. Aunt Katharine gave a picnic for some children; 
she treated them to sandwiches, cake, lemonade, nuts, and 
raisins. When they were tired of play they visited the 
greenhouses, and saw the tall banana trees. 

Kath'a rine 

sand'wich es 
lem on ade' 

ba na'na 

60. Small service is true service while it lasts : 

Of humblest friends, dear children, scorn not one. 
The daisy, by the shadow that it casts, 
Protects the lingering dewdrop from the sun. 

— William Wordsworth. 

ser'vice himi'blest scorn lin'gering dew'drop 


language liberty libraries listened 

obedient ordered patient pleasure 

scarlet sentence separate shepherd 

trolley vacation visitor complete 


Fifth Year — Second Half 


A siifl5x is a word or syllable added to another word to 
modify its meaning. 

I. aty CTjOr =^ one who, that which 

beggar scholar reminder doctor factor 

liar builder seller director elevator 

II. er = more 

greater quicker brighter longer louder 

est = most 

greatest quickest brightest longest loudest 

III. less = without 

friendless cloudless noiseless restless endless 

IV. fid = fuU of 

cheerful truthful respectful willful 

V. /y = in a manner 

rapidly distinctly surely orderly calmly 

VI. ouSy ious, eous = full of, worthy of 

nervous perilous poisonous anxious curious 

cautious piteous righteous beauteous plenteous 

VII. eetj ier = one who 

auctioneer engineer cashier soldier clothier 

VIII. an, ian = one who, pertaining to 

American German Italian musician historian 

Fifth Year — Second Half 41 

IX. ness = having the quality of 

weakness laziness business wildness friendliness 

X. en = made of, to make 

wooden golden lighten cheapen sadden 


A prefix is a word or syllable put before another word 
to modify its meaning. 

I. e, ex = out, out of 

educate eject elect extract export 

II. mis = wrong, wrongly 

misdirect misjudge misstep misgovern 

III. re = back, again 

remove rebuild recall replant repay 

IV. un = back, not 

imcertain imcommon unbend unlock unable 

V. im, in = in, into, not 

immortal impress impart immodest impolite 
inform income incorrect incomplete inconvenient 

VI. otU = more than, beyond, longer than 

outdo outlaw outlive outbreak outside 

42 Fifth Year — Second Half 

VII. met = above, beyond 

overdo overload overcharge overlook overcome 

VIII. pre = before 

prefix prepare prescribe prevent prefer 

IX. dis = not, away 

disagree dishonor disappear discharge disable 

X. trans = across, beyond, through 

transatlantic transfer transparent transport 


A stem is a foundation word, to which prefixes and sufl&xes 
may be added. 

I. porta, portdtum = to carry 

export report import transport porter 

II. scribo, scriptum = to write 

inscribe prescribe transcribe transcript postscript 

III. ponoy positum = to place 

expose repose impose dispose transpose 

IV. traho, tractum = to draw 

extract retract distract extractor extra 

V. mitto, missum = to send 

emit remit transmit dismiss remiss 


1. I hold a doctrine, to which I owe not much indeed, but 
all the little I ever had ; namely, that with ordinary talent 
and extraordinary perseverance all things are attainable. 

— Sm T. F. Buxton. 

doc'trine tal'ent ex traor'di na ry 

per se ver'ance at tain'a ble 

2. Do not think of knocking out another person's brains 
because he differs in opinion from you. It would be quite 
as intelligent to knock yourself on the head because you 
differ from yourself ten years ago. —Horace Mann. 

per'son differs o pin'ion in tel'li gent 

3. Small kindnesses, small courtesies, small considera- 
tions, habitually practiced, give a greater charm to the 
character than the display of great talents and accom- 
plishments. — Kelly. 

con sid er actions ha bit'u al ly dis play' 

ac com'pUsh ments 

4. The first scenes of the Revolution were enacted near 
Boston, the capital of Massachusetts. The oppressive 
measures of the British had stirred the Americans to very 
great activity. 

scenes en act'ed op press'ive stir 

meas'ures Brit'ish stirred 


44 Sixth Year — First Half 

6. Dxiring the years of 1773 and 1774 there was a popular 
belief among the colonists, that the unjust taxation of the 
English Parliament would finally bring on a struggle. 

pop'u lar col'o nists Par'lia ment 

belief taxa'tion strug'gle 

6. Consequently many hundreds of colonists equipped 
themselves with muskets and bayonets, drilled without 
ceasing, and promised that when the hour for action finally 
arrived, they would be ready to assemble at a minute's 

mus'kets bay'o nets e quip' 

ceas'ing assem'ble equipped' 

7. In the spring of 1775, Paul Revere, one of the most 
courageous of the minute men, discovered that it was 
General Gage's intention to send a regiment to Concord 
to destroy the American stores which were hidden through- 
out that district. 

coura'geous inten'tion reg'iment hid'den dis'trict 

8. Paul Revere resolved to warn the patriots of the ap- 
proach of the British. He went to the opposite side of the 
river and there, a lonely sentinel, awaited the signal that 
was to tell him which way the EngUsh were going. 

re solved' op'po site sen'ti nel a wait'ed sig'nal 

Sixth Year — First Half ^45 

9. As soon as he could distinguish the gleam of the 
lanterns he gave rein to his horse, and rode through Lexing- 
ton to Concord. His midnight ride aroused the entire 

distin'guish gleam lan'tems rein mid'night 

10. When General Gage reached Lexington, he foimd a 
throng of sixty minute men, who defied his authority. 
"Disperse, ye rebels," cried the English ofl&cer. "Lay 
down your arms and disperse." 

throng defied' author'ity disperse' reb'els 

11. As the Americans did not surrender, the soldiers fired, 
and seven patriots fell. Here then, at Lexington, was the 
first bloodshed of the Revolutionary War, — a war in which 
the colonists were forced to defend their liberties in many 
hard-fought battles. 

sur ren'der blood'shed Rev o lu'tion a ry de fend' fought 

12. The anniversary of the Battle of Lexington is a legal 
holiday in Massachusetts. Li 1908 the school children of 
Boston took a prominent part in imveiling a marble tablet 
to the memory of Paul Revere in Faneuil Hall. 

le'gal prom'inent imveil'ing mar'ble tab'let 

46 Sixth Year — First Half 

IS. By the rude bridge that arched the flood. 
Their flag to April's breeze unfurled, 
Here once the embattled farmers stood, 
And fired the shot heard round the world. 

— R. W. Emerson. 

arched im furled' em bat' tied 

14. Hail, Columbia ! happy land ! 

Hail, ye heroes, heav'n-bom band ! 
Who fought and bled in Freedom's cause. 
And when the storm of war was gone. 
Enjoyed the peace your valor won. 
Let independence be our boast, 
Ever mindful what it cost. 

— Joseph Hopkinson. 

hail he'ro val'or 

Co lum'bi a he'roes boast 

16. A traveler said that he could not attempt a descrip- 
tion of the services in the great cathedral at Rome. He 
closed with these words: "That which made the deepest 
impression upon me was the reverent attitude of an audience 
of sixty thousand souls." 

de scrip'tion im pres'sion at'ti tudc 

ca the'dral reVer ent au'di ence 

Sixth Year — First Half 47 

16. Our class had a long grammar lesson in which we re- 
viewed the various kinds of phrases. "Josephine," said 
the teacher at last, "write a sentence which shall contain 
both an adverbial ^nd an attribute phrase." 

re viewed' phra'ses Jo'se phine 

ad ver'bi al at'tri bute 

17. A tremendous audience gathered to applaud the fa- 
mous singer. Not a seat was vacant and even the aisles 
were crowded. At the conclusion of the performance, the 
artist aroused great enthusiasm by singing "Home, Sweet 

tre men'dous va'cant con clu'sion 

ap plaud' , aisles en thu'si asm 

18. Some of the domestic evils of drunkenness are houses 

without windows, gardens without fences, fields without 

tillage, bams without roofs, and children without clothing, 

principles, morals, or manners. 

— Benjamin Franklin. 

do mes'tic drunk'en ness fen'ces 

till'age prin'ci pies 

Language work. Write the comparative form of long and various. 
Write the superlative form of famous and greai. 

48 Sixth Year — First Half 

19. It is observed at sea that men are never so much 
disposed to complain and mutiny, as when least employed. 
Hence an old captain, when there was nothing else to do, 
would issue the order to "scour the anchor." 

— Samuel Smiles. 
disposed' complain' mu'tiny is'sue scour 

20. Do you remember why Coliunbus undertook his voy- 
ages of discovery ? They were inspired chiefly by the desire 
to find shorter trade routes. From that time imtil to-day, 
men have sought by every possible means, to conquer 

im der took' in spired' routes 

sought ccfu'quer 

21. With the completion of the Suez Canal, the sea trip 
from western Europe to China and Japan was materially 
lessened. Since then, engineers have been interested in the 
question of a similar canal at Panama. 

com ple'tion ca nal' ma te'ri al ly 

les'sened en gi neers' 

Language work. Write all the verbs on this page in present 
time, and beside each one write the future tense. 

Sixth Year — First Half 49 

22. The pioneer in this gigantic work was the French 
Panama Canal Company, with Ferdinand de Lesseps as 
president. The French people believed that owing to his 
vast experience at Suez, he would be the most competent 
man to manage the enterprise. 

pi o neer' gi gan'tic ex pe'ri ence 

com'pe tent en'ter prise 

23. Ten years after the commencement of the work, the 
French Company was imable to proceed through lack of 
fimds. During this time, many millions had been expended, 
and a multitude of lives had been sacrificed in this pestilen- 
tial country. 

com mence'ment pro ceed' ex pend'ed 

mul'ti tude pes ti len'tial 

24. In 1904 Congress purchased from the French Com- 
pany and from the Republic of Panama all essential rights 
in this territory. Have you ever read of any of the ob- 
stacles which our engineers must overcome in this tropical 

Con'gress es sen'tiat ter'ri to ry 

ob'sta cles trop'i cal 

Language work. Use the words enterprise and essential in sen- 

50 Sixth Year — First Half 

26. The climate of Panama is tropical, and there is also 
an enormous percentage of moisture in the air. The land 
is very fertile. 

cli'mate enor'mous percent'age 

mois'ture fer'tile 

26. In the rainy season, the rivers become raging tor- 
rents. A canal in this region, therefore, must afford ample 
protection against all such perils, as its route follows the 
course of the most turbulent stream on the isthmus. 

tor'rents re'gion am'ple per'ils tur'bulent 

27. In many places the laborers are forced to cut their 
way through treacherous swamps, where it is difficult to 
find a solid foundation on which to build. Here the work- 
men must also fight against malaria and other diseases. 

treach'er ous swamps foim da'tion 

ma la'ri a dis eas'es 

28. The principal cut on the isthmus is at Culebra. The 
cutting of nine miles of soKd rock and the removal of such 
vast quantities of material, form, in all probabihty, one of 
the greatest problems of the work. 

prin'ci pal quan'ti ty prob a bil'i ty 

re mov'al quan'ti ties prob'lems 

Sixth Year — First Half 51 

29. Congress discussed for some months the advantages 
of both a sea level canal and a lock canal. Before reaching 
a decision much expert testimony was taken. Finally the 
plans for a lock canal were adopted. 

dis cussed' ad van'ta ges de ci'sion 

tes'ti mo ny a dopt'ed 

30. The plans necessitate the spending of millions of 
dollars, but the canal will be a great benefit to commerce. 
Merchandise can be transported from New York to San 
Francisco in fourteen days instead of sixty days. 

ne ces'si tate ben'e fit mer'chan dise 

com'merce ben'e fit ed trans port'ed 

31. Aromatic plants bestow 

No spicy fragrance where they grow ; 
But crushed and trodden to the groimd, 
Diffuse their balmy sweets around. 

— Oliver Goldsmith. 

aromat'ic spi'cy crushed trod 

balm'y dif fuse' trod'den 

32. "The avaricious man is like the barren sandy ground 
of the desert, which sucks in all the rain and dews with 
greediness, but yields no fruitful herbs or plants for the 
benefit of others." 

avari'cious bar'ren des'ert greed'iness yields 

52 Sixth Year — First Half 

33. The immigrant who desired his son Michael to at- 
tend school, was surprised to learn that no child could be 
accepted without a certificate of vaccination. 

im'mi grant Mi'chael cer tif 'i cate 

vac ci na'tion ac cept'ed 

34. In 1813 Conmiodore Perry, imder the most adverse 
circumstances, won a great naval victory on Lake Erie. 
Before the contest began, he raised a flag bearing these 
words : "Don't give up the ship." 

com'modore ad'verse cir'ciun stan ces nav'al con' test 

36. The result of the expedition seems like a miracle, 
when we consider the superior training of the British. Perry 
annoimced his conquest in the following words: "We 
have met the enemy and they are ours." 

expedi'tion mir'acle supe'rior announced' con'quest 

36. Every afternoon at five o'clock, Theodore helped 
Dorothy with her lessons. "Now, Dorothy," I heard him 
say, "I shall be very much disappointed if you cannot 
point out the predicates in all these imperative sentences." 

The'o dore Dor'o thy dis ap point'ed 

pred'i cates im per'a tive 

Sixth Year — First Half 53 

37. We hold these truths to be self-evident : that all men 
are created equal ; that they are endowed by their Creator 
with certain inalienable rights ; that among these are life, 
liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. 

— Thomas Jefferson. 

self-ev'i dent en dowed' Cre a' tor 

in a'lien a ble pur suit' 

38. When Washington declined a military escort on the 
occasion of his inauguration he said, !'I require no guard 
but the affections of the people." 

de clined' mil'i ta ry es'cort 

oc ca'sion in au gu ra'tion 

39. The frugal snail, with forecast of repose. 
Carries his house with him where'er he goes ; 
Peeps out, and if there comes a shower of rain. 
Retreats to his small domicil again. 

— Charles Lamb. 

snail fore'cast re pose' re treats' dom'i cil 

40. How beautiful the Queen of Night, on high 
Her way pursuing among scattered clouds. 
Where, ever and anon, her head she shrouds. 
Hidden from view in dense obscurity. 

— William Wordsworth. 

pursu'ing scat'tered anon' shrouds obscu'rity 

54 Sixth Year — First Half 

41. One of the most beautiful marches ever written is the 
wedding hymn from the opera of Lohengrin. Whenever 
the opera is performed, the orchestra plays this hymn at 
the marriage of Lohengrin and Elsa of Brabant. 

wed'ding op'e ra or'ches tra 

hymn per formed' mar'riage 

42. The narrative on which this particular opera is 
founded recites that Godfrey, Duke of Brabant, has van- 
ished and that Elsa, his sister, is accused of spiriting him 

nar'ra tive par tic'u lar van'ished 

ac cused' spir'it ing 

43. The one who accuses Elsa is Coimt Frederick, whose 
chief desire is to gain possession of Elsa's property and to 
be declared ruler of the duchy. Elsa is summoned before 
King Henry and there asserts her innocence. 

Fred'er ick pos ses'sion prop'er ty 

smn'moned as serts' in'no cence 

44. Count Frederick says he will fight with any one who 
volimteers to champion Elsa's cause. Elsa, in extreme 
distress, says she will bestow her hand and fortune on the 
knight who defends her. 

vol un teers' cham'pi on ex treme' 

dis tress' knight 

Sixth Year — First Half 55 

45. Before the assembled courtiers, the heralds blow the 
summons, but no champion appears for the solitary Elsa. 
Suddenly, at the supreme moment, a small skiff approaches 
drawn by a beautiful white swan with a gold chain sus- 
pended from its neck. 

court'iers her'alds . sol'i ta ry 

su preme' sus pend'ed 

46. There, in the wondrous swan boat, stands a knight in 
dazzling armor. His gracious countenance inspires con- 
fidence, and as he steps upon the shore he is welcomed by 
the knights and ladies of the court. 

won'drous ar'mor coim'te nance 

daz'zling gra'cious con'fi dence 

47. As Lohengrin kneels before the radiant Elsa, he says 
he will defend her if she will promise never to inquire his 
name. Elsa is in such desperate straits that she consents. 
The knight then challenges and defeats Coimt Frederick. 

kneels ra'diant des'perate consents' challenges 

48. At the appointed hour Elsa and the knight are 
married. Elsa, immindful of her promise, begs him to re- 
veal his name. She is so persistent, that at last he exclaims, 
with a gesture of despair : "Lohengrin is my name." 

ap point'ed mar'ried re veal' per sist'ent ges'ture 

56 Sixth Year — First Half 

49. Lohengrin says that having revealed his name, he 
has forfeited his right to remain, and must now go into 
exile. As he reluctantly turns from the terrified Elsa, the 
group of people exclaim : "The swan ! the swan !" 

for'feit ed ex'ile re luc'tant ly 

ter'ri fied group 

60. Yes, there is the swan with the golden chain attached 
to its neck. Just above the skiff hovers a lovely white dove, 
and as it steadily approaches, the spectacle becomes visible 
to all. 

at tached' hov'ers stead'i ly spec'ta cle vis'i ble 

61. As soon as Lohengrin Iqosens the chain from the neck 
of the faithful swan, it gradually sinks. Then Lohengrin, 
leaving the miserable Elsa, springs into the skiff. The 
dove seizes the chain, and Lohengrin vanishes as mys- 
teriously as he came. 

loos'ens f aith'f ul grad'u al ly 

mis'er a ble mys te'ri ous ly 

62. Before Josephine's departure for the siimmer, she 
bought silks, worsted, and other materials for embroidery. 
The marking of all the initials on the handkerchiefs was too 
indistinct to be of use. 

de par'ture wors'ted em broid'er y 

in i'tials in dis tinct' 

Sixth Year — First Half 57 

63. Helen's work in decimals was very poor in comparison 
with Bertha's, though when the grammar hour arrived, the 
tables were turned. The teacher was always positive that 
Helen would classify, without hesitation, any word in the 

dec'i mals com par'i son pos'i tive 

clas'si fy hes i ta'tion 

64. Instead of going to the theater on Saturday ,Theodore 
and his friends obtained permission to go to Bronx Park. 
They remained several hours, visiting the gardens and the 
menagerie. For luncheon they had sandwiches, fruit, and a 
most delicious cinnamon cake. 

the'a ter men ag'e rie de li'cious 

per mis'sion limch'eon cin'na mon 

66. Who does not enjoy the winter ! When the mercury 
falls to zero, and icicles aboimd, then even such nuisances as 
freezing pipes and delayed traffic are accepted by adults 
as the price they pay for the sports of the yoimgsters. 

mer'cu ry i'ci cles nui'san ces traffic a dults' 

Language work. Write a composition on the use of snow. For 
this lesson consult an authority that will tell you the effect of snow 
on the farmer's crops. 


Sixth Year — First Half 


A sufl&x is a word or syllable added to another word to 
modify its meaning. 

I. hood = the state of 

boyhood childhood manhood brotherhood girlhood 

II. ment = act of; state of being; that which 
movement judgment engagement excitement settlement 















ery, ry = place where ; state of being ; 
art or practice of 

pottery slavery dentistry surgery 

y = full of ; like 
dusty gloomy . earthy bony 

ise^ ize = to make 
advertise realize apologize civilize 

able^ ible = that may or can be ; worthy of 

reversible digestible pitiable 
al = like ; pertaining to 



maternal bridal rural 

ant, ent = one who ; ing 
assistant president pleasant provident 

ion = act of ; state of being 
digestion decision reflection corruption 

Sixth Year — First Half 59 

X. ist = one who 

artist florist humorist novelist vocalist 


A prefix is a word or syllable put before another word to 
modify its meaning. 

I. od {a, aCy afy ag, a/, an, etc.) = to 

adhere aggressor afl5x allure attain 

II. stib {suCj suf, sugy sup, etc.) = imder ; after ; up 
subscribe succeed subdivide suffix support 

III. ante (anti) = before ; against 
antecedent anteroom antedate antidote antipathy 

IV. be = to make 

bedeck benimib becalm befriend bedim 

V. con {co, col, com, cor, etc.) = together ; with 
conjoin coact collect commingle correspond 

VI. contra {contro, counter) = against 

contradict controversy coimtermand coimteract 

VII. inter = between ; among 

intercede interline interpose intermarry intertwine 

6o Sixth Year — First Half 

VIII. pro = for ; forward ; forth 

pronoun profess promotion project produce 

IX. a, aft, ahs = from ; away 

avert absolve abduct abnormal abstract 

X. de = down ; from 

depose deject descend depart detract 


A stem is a foundation word to which prefixes and suf- 
fixes may be added. 

I. dico^ dictum = to say 

dictate dictionary benediction contradict predict 

II. specio (spicio), spectum = to behold 

prospect respect inspect suspicious despicable 

III. facto, factum {Hew, fectum) = to make ; to act 
facile factor manufacture difficult perfect 

IV. diicOy dv^tum = to lead 

introduce produce reduce abduction viaduct 

V. ferOy latum = to bear ; to carry 

refer prefer transfer relate dilate 

VI. gradior, gressus = to walk 

graduate degrade gradual congress progress egress 


1. All are architects of fate, 

Working in these walls of time ; 
Some with massive deeds and great, 
Some with ornaments of rhyme. 

— Henry W. Longfellow. 

ar'chitects mas'sive or'naments rhyme 

2. Nothing can supply the place of books. They are 
cheering or soothing companions in solitude, illness, affic- 
tion. The wealth of both continents would not compen- 
sate for the good they rnipart. _ William E. Channing. 

sooth'ing sol'i tude af flic'tion 

com'pen sate im part' 

3. Abraham Lincoln always displayed the most tender 
sympathetic interest in all kinds of suffering that came to 
his notice. An episode that occurred during the Rebellion, 
will serve to illustrate Lincoln^s kindly attitude toward his 

A'bra ham sym pa thet'ic ep'i sode 

re bel'lion il lus'trate 


62 Sixth Year — Second Half 

4. During the Civil War, Lincoln frequently visited the 
army hospitals. Every wretched soldier there was desirous 
of hearing his genuine words of sympathy, and every man 
who was able, saluted as the Chief Executive passed by. 

civ'il wretch'ed de sir'ous gen'u ine ex ec'u tive 

6. Lincoln was once imder the guidance of a youthful 
house physician. As they approached the ward where the 
southern prisoners lay, the yoimg surgeon said, "Oh, Mr. 
President, you don'^ want to go in there. They don't 
deserve it. They are only rebels." 

guid'ance phy si'cian pris'on ers sur'geon de serve' 

6. The melancholy features of the President lighted for a 
moment with an amiable smile, as he put his hand gently 
on his escort's shoulder. "You mean," he said, "that they 
are our Confederate brethren. I want to see them." 

mel'an chol y f ea'tures a'mi a ble 

con fed'er ate breth'ren 

Memory work. Let every American, every lover of liberty, every 
well-wisher to his posterity, swear by the blood of the Revolution 
never to violate, in the least particular, the laws of the country, and 
never to tolerate their violation by others. 

— Abraham Lincoln. 

Sixth Year — Second Half 63 

7. As Lincoln passed through the aisles, he spoke as 
kindly and as courteously to these men, as to those who be- 
longed to the Union army. Hatred of an enemy had no 
place in his generous character. 

cour'te ous ly im'ion ha'tred gen'er ous char'ac ter 

8. Come, gentle Spring ! ethereal mildness come. 
And from the bosom of yon dropping cloud. 
While music wakes aroimd, veiled in a shower 
Of shadowing roses, on our plains descend. 

— James Thomson. 

ethe'real bos'om veiled descend' 

9. Physicians all say that those who wish to overcome 
that plague of civilization, — consumption, — must ventilate 
their rooms thoroughly, and sleep in the fresh air. Those 
who live as directed frequently recover their lost energy. 

plague civ i li za'tion con smnp'tion 

ven'ti late en'er gy 

Memory work. Study his story closely, boys and girls. It 
grows greater with each retelling; for as time goes on, Abraham 
Lincoln will rise above his fellows as the greatest, noblest man of 
this wonderful nineteenth century. 

— Brooks. 

64 Sixth Year — Second Half 

10. A very rich woman founded an orphan asylxim as a 
memorial to a beloved daughter who died in infancy. 
Many of the destitute children who gained admission, were 
adopted and removed far from the scenes of their early life. 

or'phan asy^lxnn memo'rial 

des'ti tute ad mis'sion in'fan cy 

11. Last Tuesday or Wednesday I witnessed in one of 
our parks the destruction of some dahlia and chrysanthemum 
plants. The boy who uprooted them was not conscious that 
he was destroying his own property. 

wit'nessed de struc'tion dah'lia 

chrys an'the mmn con'scious 

12. This occurrence reminds me that a boy sometimes 
says: "My father doesn't pay taxes, he only pays rent." 
The average boy, imfortimately, does not imderstand where 
the money comes from for the maintenance and improvement 
of parks, hospitals, schools, and streets. 

oc cur'rence av'er age im f or'tu nate ly 

main'te nance im prove'ment 

Suggestion: Correlate the language work of the week with 
Lessons 12 and 13. Describe the method of raising taxes and enumer- 
ate the various things for which the money is used, in your own 

Sixth Year — Second Half 65 

13. The money used for the development of our dty is 
raised chiefly by a tax on real estate. Landlords who are 
responsible for this money must collect it from their tenants. 
Additional taxes, therefore, mean increased rents. 

development respon'sible ten'ants 

ad di'tion al in creased' 

14. How sweet and gracious, even in common speech. 
Is that fine sense which men call Courtesy ! 
Wholesome as air and genial as the light. 
Welcome in every clime as breath of flowers, — 
It transmutes aliens into trusting friends. 
And gives its owner passport roimd the globe. 

— James T. Fields. 

ge'nial trans mutes' a'liens 

trust'ing pass'port 

16. A mint is a place where, imder legislative authority, 
gold, silver, copper, and nickel are converted into currency. 
The use of the precious metals as mediums of exchange 
dates from the earliest period in history. 

Name two cities in the United States where there are 

leg'is la tive con vert'ed cur'ren cy 

me'di ums ex change' 

66 Sixth Year — Second Half 

16. Originally one commodity was exchanged for another, 
but this arrangement was exceedingly troublesome. Then 
came the circulation of gold and silver pieces of definite 
weight, but having the form of lumps and buttons. 

com mod'i ty ar range'ment ex ceed'ing ly 

cir cu la'tion def 'i nite 

17. In order to facilitate business, it was found necessary 
to have a more convenient method of exchange. Accord- 
ingly there followed the regulation of the coins, so that all 
those of equal value should correspond in fineness and in 

fa cil'i tate con ve'nient ac cord'ing ly 

reg u la'tion cor re spond' 

18. Every evil to which we do not succiunb is a bene- 
factor. As the Sandwich Islander believes that the strength 
and valor of the enemy he kills passes into himself, so we 
gain the strength of the temptation we resist. 

— Ralph W. Emerson. 

succumb' benefac'tor temp taction resist' 

Language work. Add -^ng to the following words, and make any 
other change that may be needed : facilitate, have, exchange, believe, 
run, beg, quarrel. 

Sixth Year — Second Half 67 

19. A slender acquaintance with the world must convince 
every man that actions, not words, are the true criterion of 
the attachment of friends ; and that the most liberal pro- 
fessions of good will are very far from being the surest 
marks of it. _ George Washington. 

con vince' cri te'ri on at tach'ment 

lib'er al pro f es'sions 

20. Beware 

Of entrance to a quarrel ; but being in, 
Bear't that the opposed may beware of thee. 
Give every man thy ear, but few thy voice ; 
Take each man's censure but reserve thy judgment. 

— William Shakespeare. 

be ware' quar'rel op posed' 

cen'sure re serve' 

21. From the earliest times nations have settled their dis- 
putes by an appeal to arms. Yet war has always been re- 
garded as a calamity, and all thoughtful people have realized 
that it could never produce lasting peace. 

set'tled disputes' appeal' 

ca lam'i ty re'al ized 

Memory work. "Prosperity getteth friends; adversity trieth 

68 Sixth Year — Second Half 

22. Wise men of all ages have had a great aversion to the 
emplojmaent of force in the settlement of disputes. As war 
sows the seeds for future conflicts, its injurious effects are 
often felt for generations. 

a ver'sion em ploy'ment con'flicts 

in ju'ri ous gen er a'tions 

23. The Czar of Russia called a conference at The Hague 
on May i8, 1899, to consider settling all disputes between 
nations by arbitration. At this first universal Peace Con- 
ference, twenty-six nations were represented. 

czar con'f er ence ar bi tra'tion 

u ni ver'sal rep re sent'ed 

24. All the nations represented at The Hague, afterward 
ratified the provisions reconmiended by the conference. 
Therefore the influence of this meeting is absolutely without 
parallel in the world's history. 

rat'i fled pro vi'sions rec om mend'ed 

in'flu ence ab'so lute ly par'al lei 

Language work. Write the simple words from which the follow* 
ing are formed, and note the changes made: injurious, settling, 
ratified, lovable. 

Sixth Year — Second Half 69 

. !i6. The second Peace Conference was held at The Hague 
on June 15, 1907. Between these two conferences, innu- 
merable questions were peaceably settled on both hemi- 
spheres. The sovereign at whose call the nations first 
assembled has reason to feel proud of his achievement. 

in nu'mer a ble peace'a bly hem'i spheres 

sov'er eign a chieve'ment 

26. I hate that dnmi's discordant soimd, 
Parading roimd and roimd and roimd. 
To me it talks of ravaged plains, 
And burning towns and ruined swains. 
And all that misery's hand bestows, 
To fill the catalogue of human woes. 

— John Scott. 

dis cor'dant pa rade' cat'a logue 

rav'aged pa ra'ding 

27. In the age of chivalry there lived in England a youth 
named Arthur. He had fair complexion and golden hair, 
and at an early age gave evidence of the lovable disposition 
which distinguished him through life. 

chiv'al ry Ar'thur com plex'ion 

ev'i dence dis po si'tion 

" Abhor that -which is evil, cleave to that which is good." 

70 Sixth Year — Second Half 

28. Arthur lived with the mighty warrior, Sir Hector, 
whom he called father. Sir Hector used to encourage 
Arthur to go in search of adventure. He wished to 
strengthen the youth, and fit him to meet every emergency 
of life. 

war'rior en courtage ad ven'ture 

strength'en e mer'gen cy 

29. In the woods Arthur frequently encoimtered a gor- 
geous array of knights and ladies on horseback. Their 
saddles were studded with rubies and emeralds. The 
knights wore glittering helmets and their coats of mail were 
made of tiny links of steel. 

en coxm'tered gor'geous ru'bies 

em'er aids glit'ter ing hel'mets 

30. When Arthur was twenty-one, a quaint and beauti- 
ful ceremony made him a knight. At this time there was 
no king in England. Some time had elapsed since the de- 
cease of the former powerful monarch, and several strong 
lords were ambitious to be king. 

Explain why the soldiers of the present day do not wear 

quaint cer'e mo ny e lapsed' 

de cease' mon'arch am bi'tious 

Sixth Year — Second Half 71 

31. Merlin, a wise magician, asked the archbishop to 
summon all the great lords to London to choose a king. 
They assembled in a church, and after psalms of praise had 
been simg, they implored Providence to make right and 
justice triiunph. 

ma gi'cian arch bish'op psalms 

Prov'i dence tri'umph 

32. After these religious ceremonies, the brilliant pageant 
filed into the churchyard where the spectators saw a huge 
circular stone. On this stone was an anvil of steel, and 
fixed therein a sword on which was written: "Whosoever 
pulls this sword out of this anvil is the rightful king of 

re lig'ious pag'eant spec'ta tors 

cir'cu lar an'vil 

33. The great lords tried to remove the ponderous sword, 
but so securely was it fixed, that no one was successful. 
Finally the spectators were allowed to try. Arthur reso- 
lutely clutched the sword and to the consternation of all, 
removed it from the anvil. 

pon'der ous se cure'ly res'o lute ly 

clutched con ster na'tion 

"A smooth sea never made a skillful navigator." 

72 Sixth Year — Second Half 

34. Then Sir Hector confessed, with some agitation, that 
Arthur was the son of the preceding king. Owing to the 
jealousy of the great lords of the realm. Merlin had taken 
the precaution to hide him. 

con f essed' ag i ta'tion pre ce'ding 

jeal'ous y pre cau'tion 

36. By acclamation Arthur was then declared king, and 
all the people swore allegiance to him. He made haste to 
relieve those who had previously been oppressed, and soon 
was known throughout the kingdom as "Good King 

acclama'tion alle'giance relief 

op pressed' pre'vi ous ly re lieve' 

36. Arthur and Merlin once saw on the shore of a lake, 
three fair women crowned with anemones. Arthur thought 
the xmusual sight a delusion, but Merlin pronounced them 
three queens, who would aid him in any extremity. 

a nem'o nes un u'su al de lu'sion 

pro noimced' ex trem'i ty 

" It was the time when first the question rose 
About the founding of a Table Round 
That was to be, for love of God and men 
And noble deeds, the flower of all the world." 

Sixth Year — Second Half 73 

37. Looking out on the lake, they saw an uplifted arm 
holding a richly decorated sword. With some apprehension 
Arthur cautiously rowed out and seized both sword and 
scabbard, and instantly the arm became invisible. 

dec'o ra ted ap pre hen'sion cau'tious ly 

scab'bard in vis'i ble 

38. Merlin said: "Use this sword so that persecution 
shall cease and right and justice shall prevail." After many 
insurrections had been quelled, and peace had been restored, 
Arthur established at his court the Order of the Roimd 

per se cu'tion jus'tice pre vail' 

in siu: rec'tions quelled 

39. This order consisted of one hundred and fifty knights, 
who had proved themselves without exception, worthy dis- 
ciples of " Good King Arthur." Before entering this organi- 
zation, they pledged themselves to the service of God and 

con sist'ed ex cep'tion dis ci'ples 

or gan i za'tion pledged 

" And so there grew great tracts of wilderness, 
Wherein the beast was ever more and more, 
But man was less and less, till Arthur came." 

74 Sixth Year — Second Half 

40. These knights looked upon falsehood as a most de- 
testable vice. They despised everything mean, cruel, or 
deceitful ; and by their noble unselfish lives, they did much 
to purify their native land. 

f alse'hood de test'a ble de spised' 

de ceit'f ul pu'ri fy 

41. The knight who was Arthur's greatest reliance, and 
who enjoyed imboimded popularity throughout the king's 
domain, was Sir Laimcelot. The knight whose character 
attained the greatest degree of perfection, — who was in- 
finitely purer than all others, — was Sir Galahad. 

re li'ance pop u lar'i ty do main' 

per f ec'tion in'fi nite ly 

42. After many years of peace and prosperity, there arose 
an insurrection of such magnitude, that Arthur was forced 
to take the field against the hostile forces. He was assailed 
and mortally woimded by the traitorous knight, Sir Modred. 

pros per'i ty mag'ni tude hos'tile 

as sailed' trai'tor ous 

" And one there was among us, ever moved 
Among us in white armor, Galahad. 
' God make thee good as thou art beautiful,' 
Said Arthur, when he dubb'd him knight." 

Sixth Year — Second Half 75 

43. Though ahnost insensible, King Arthur entreated Sir 
Bedivere to carry him to the shore of the lake. Over- 
whelmed with grief, Sir Bedivere complied, and there beheld 
a ghostly fcarge, heavily draped in black. 

in sen'si ble com ply' o ver whelmed' 

en treat'ed com plied' ghost'ly 

44. An air of mystery pervaded the scene, and among 
the xmearthly figures that moved to and fro were the three 
queens. When they saw the exhausted condition of the 
king, they uttered a plaintive cry, and tenderly lifted him 
into the barge. 

per va'ded im earth'ly ex haust'ed 

con di'tion plain'tive 

46. One queen gently put her hand imderneath Arthur's 
head and took off his broken helmet. "Like a shattered 
column lay the king," while Sir Bedivere cried: "Ah, my 
lord, whither shall I go ? Now the whole Round Table is 

un der neath' shat'tered col'tunn 

whith'er dis solved' 

Language work. Find out all you can about the age of chivalry 
and write a composition on it. 

76 Sixth Year — Second Half 

46. Sir Bedivere was so absorbed in this agonizing scene, 
that the king's words were scarcely audible : "Old customs 
pass away, yielding place to new/ The Round Table did 
its work and now has disappeared. Pray for me. More 
things are wrought by prayer than the world dreams of. 

ab sorbed' ag'o ni zing au'di ble 

cus'toms fare well' 

47. In small towns where the structures are low, danger 
from fire is greatly diminished, but in large cities a fire is a 
most thrilling sight. A crowd, attracted at first by 
curiosity, is always held spellbound by the sublimity of 
the scene. 

struc'tures di min'ished thriU'ing 

cu ri os'i ty sub lim'i ty 

48. Recently there was a terrific fire in a building occu- 
pied by a firm engaged in the manufacture of furniture. 
The fumes of the turpentine nearly suffocated several mem- 
bers of the fire brigade. 

ter rif 'ic oc'cu pied man u f ac'ture 

tur'pen tine suf 'f o ca ted bri gade' 

Language Work. Explain why the y is changed to i in terrify, 
terrific ; and in occupy, occupied. 

Sixth Year — Second Half 77 

49. The fire was caused by a short circuit, and though 
every known apparatus was used to quench the flames, it 
was feared that several firemen would be caught in the back 
draft, before the fire could be extinguished. 

'dr'cuit ap pa ra'tus quench 

draft ex tin'guished 

60. As usual, the brave firemen made a series of thrilling 
rescues. Many mechanics were trapped on the top floor, 
but after a brief interval, were taken by scahng ladders, to 
the roof of a neighboring tenement. 

se'ries scale in'ter val 

mechan'ics scal'ing ten'ement 

61. When the weather becomes changeable and the ther- 
mometer suddenly falls, then the germs of whooping-cough, 
diphtheria, and pnexunonia are active imtil the return of the 
pleasant days of spring. 

change'a ble ther mom'e ter germs 

whoop'ing-cough diph the'ri a pneu mo'ni a 

52. Ernest received such careful instruction in hygiene, 
that though his appetite was very good, he seldom ate 
pickles and other indigestible things. 

Er'nest hy'gi ene ap'pe tite 

pick'les in di gest'i ble 

78 Sixth Year — Second Half 

63. Some must be great. Great ofl&ces will have 
Great talents. And God gives to every man 
The virtue, temper, imderstanding, taste. 
That lifts him into life, and lets him fall 
Just in the niche he was ordain'd to fill. 

— William Cowper. 

vir'tue tem'per niche ordained' 

64. Mr. J. B. Foster was very successful in the commer- 
cial world. He said his motto was : " Quick sales and small 
profits." Besides that, he never kept a creditor waiting. 
He instructed his cashier to take special pains to meet all 
claims pimctually. 

com mer'cial cred'it or cash ier' 

spe'dal pimc'tu al ly 

66. There are some eastern coimtries where many mis- 
sionaries have been massacred by soldiers, who resented the 
introduction of western ideas. Those who escaped death 
were frequently separated from their friends, kidnapped, 
and conducted across the frontier where they received in- 
structions never to return. 

mis'sionary in tro duc'tion mas'sacred 

mis'sion a ries kid'napped fron tier' 

Sixth Year — Second Half 79 


A suflSx is a word or syllable added to another word to 
modify its meaning. 

I. /y, ijy = to make 

glorify magnify purify beautify pacify 

II. ee = one who ; one to whom 

absentee payee trustee committee assignee 

III. ancty ancy, ence, ency = act of ; state of being 
assistance constancy occupancy absence currency 

IV. age = state of being ; a collection of ; allowance for 
bondage baggage foliage breakage ferriage 

V. ary = one who ; place where ; pertaining to 
adversary incendiary seminary granary literary 

VI. ure = state of being ; act of ; that which 
rapture moisture departure failure erasure 

VII. iCy ical = like ; belonging to 

angelic heroic historic tropical typical 

VIII. ism = state of being ; doctrine of 

heroism patriotism barbarism Methodism Catholicism 

IX. ity, ty = state of being 

cruelty loyalty equahty hostility fertility 


Sixth Year — Second Half 


A prefix is a word or syllable put before another word to 
modify its meaning. 
















per = through 
perceive perspire perforate 

post = after 
postpone postmark 


retro = backward 
retrospect retroactive 

auto = self 

automatic autocrat 


demiy hemi^ semi = half 
hemisphere semi-annual 

bi, bis = two ; twice 
bicycle bisect biscuit 


fore = before 
forearm forebode 

circum = around 








Sixth Year — Second Half 


IX. mono = one 

monologue monogram monograph monocle 


X. dia = through; across 

diameter diagnosis dialect dialogue diagonal 


A stem is a foundation word to which prefixes and suflSxes 
may be added. 

I. cedo^ cessum = to go ; to yield 

intercede precede antecedent concession excess 

II. legOy lectum = to gather ; to read 

legend legible recollect elect lecture 

III. seco, sectum = to cut 

section bisect intersect insect dissect 

rV. moveOy motum = to move 

remove movable promote motion remote 

V. spire y spiratum.= to breathe 

conspire respire aspiration inspiration spirit 

VI. vertOy versum = to turn 

avert advertise invert adversity perverse 

82 Sixth Year — Second Half 


O say, can you see, by the dawn^s early light, 

What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming, 
Whose broad strip)es and bright stars, through the perilous fight, 

O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming? 
And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air. 
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there ; 
O say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave 
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave ? 

On the shore, dimly seen through the mists of the deep, 
Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes, 
What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep. 

As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses ? 
Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam, 
In full glory reflected, now shines on the stream; 
'Tis the star-spangled banner; oh, long may it wave 
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave 1 

Oh, thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand 

Between their loved homes and the war's desolation ; 
Blest with vict'ry and peace may the heaven-rescued land 

Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation. 
Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just. 
And this be our motto, "In God is our trust !" 
And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave 
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave. 

— Francis Scott EIey. 


1. The real world, the world of spiritual truth and 
beauty, is not remote from us. Glimpses of its brightness 
come to us in hours of toil and sorrow and strenuous victory 
over reverses and temptations. Its loveliness imexpectedly 
appears to us in the heavenly deed of a commonplace man 
or woman. —J. E. C. Sawyer. 

spir'i tu al glimps'es stren'u ous 

re vers'es love'li ness im ex pect'ed 

2. Among well-bred people, a mutual deference is af- 
fected; contempt of others disguised; authority con- 
cealed; attention given to each in his turn; and an easy 
stream of conversation is maintained, without vehemence, 
without interruption, without eagerness for victory, and 
without any airs of superiority. — Davu) Hume. 

mu'tu al con cealed' defer ence con ver sa'tion 

con tempt' ve'he mence dis guised' su pe ri or'i ty 

3. Washington! a fitting name for a beautiful city! 
Situated in the District of Columbia, on the eastern bank 
of the Potomac, Washington, the capital of the United 
States, stands an imposing tribute to our illustrious presi- 
dent. The selection of this splendid location is due, prima- 
rily, to Washington and his advisers. 

sit'u a ted Po to'mac im po'sing ad vi'sers 
trib'ute il lus'tri ous pri'ma ri ly 


84 Seventh Year — First Half 

4. Congress had formerly held sessions in various cities, 
notably in New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. In 
1800 the capital was permanently established at Washing- 
ton, which has since been the seat of the legislative, execu- 
tive, and judicial departments of the United States govern- 

f or'mer ly ses'sions no'ta bly de part'ments 

Bal'ti more ju di'cial per'ma nent ly 

6. The original city was totally destroyed during the 
War of 1812. In 1814 the work of restoration was begun, 
and Washington stands to-day imsurpassed in its majestic 
simplicity. Ambassador Bryce truly said, "Washington 
is the embodiment of the majesty and the stateliness of the 
whole nation." 

to'tal ly res to ra'tion \m sur passed' em bod'i ment 

simpUc'ity truly ambas'sador state'liness 

6. The arrangement of the streets is luiique. Diverging 
from different centers are avenues of imusual width. Penn- 
sylvania Avenue is the most prominent. Other impor- 
tant thoroughfares are Connecticut, Massachusetts, and 
New Hampshire Avenues. 

u nique' 

Mas sa chu'setts 

Con nect'i cut 


di ver'ging 

New Hamp'shire 

thor'ough fare 

Penn syl va'ni a 

Seventh Year — First Half 85 

7. Washington abounds in places of interest. Among 
these are : the Capitol ; the White House ; the Washing- 
ton monimient, a magnificent shaft of white marble; and 
the Congressional Library with its miscellaneous collection 
of books and pamphlets. 

Charming views, winding roads with spreading sycamore 
trees, and well-trained shrubbery deUght the eye. 

cap'i tol pam'phlets mis eel la'ne ous shrub'ber y 

syc'a more shaft con gres'sion al 

8. In ancient times "All roads led to Rome." In Wash- 
ington all, roads lead to the Capitol. Erected on an emi- 
nence, the Capitol is the growth of a century. Its beautiful 
dome, surmounted by a bronze statue, the Goddess of Free- 
dom, is an appropriate crown to the stately edifice. 

an'cient em'i nence cen'tu ry ed'i fice 

sur moimt'ed bronze ap pro'pri ate 

9. The residence of the president, officially termed the 
Executive Mansion, but f amiharly called the White House, 
is on Pennsylvania Avenue. Though it has been modern- 
ized, it is practically the same as the original. The execu- 
tive ojfices are detached, and thus the president is enabled 
to enjoy some measure of privacy. 

res'idence offi'cially famil'iarly priVacy 

mod'em ized prac'ti cal ly de tached' 

86 Seventh Year — First Half 

10. The suburbs of Washington are worthy of mention. 
To the south is the Arlington National Cemetery. To the 
north are the Zoological Gardens. Across the Potomac 
is Mount Vernon, the home of Washington. Here is pre- 
served the antique furniture, and here in marble sarcophagi 
repose the ashes of George and Martha Washington. 

sub'urbs Ar'ling ton zo 6 log'i cal 

pre served' an tique' sar coph'a gi 

11. How many homes are embittered by fretfulness or 
jealousy, how many illnesses aggravated by peevishness or 
discontent, for want of knowing how to commence the diffi- 
cult task of self-control. 

— Selected. 

em bit'tered fret'fid ness ag'gra va ted 

pee' vish ness dis con tent' self-con trol' 

12. If you have not slept, or if you have slept, or if you 
have a headache, or sciatica, or leprosy, or thunder-stroke, 
I beseech you by all the angels to hold your peace, and not 
pollute the morning, to which all the housemates bring 
serene and pleasant thoughts, by corruption and groans. 

— Ralph W. Emerson. 

sci at'i ca 

se rene' 


pol lute' 

lep'ro sy 

cor rup'tion 


Seventh Year — First Half 87 

13. My mother's influence in molding my character was 
conspicuous. She forced me to learn daily, long chapters 
of the Bible by heart. To that discipline and patient ac- 
curate resolve, I owe not only much of my general power 
of taking pains, but the best part of my taste for literature. 

— John Ruskin. 

mold'ing con spic'u ous chap'ters 

dis'ci pline lit'er a ture 

14. "According to the most authentic records, my dear 
children," said Grandfather, "the chair, about this time, 
had the misfortime to break its leg. It then ceased to be 
the seat of the governors of Massachusetts ; for, assuredly, 
it would have been ominous of evil to the Cpnamonwealth 
if the chair of state had tottered upon three legs." 

— Nathaniel Hawthorne. 

au then' tic rec'ords mis for' time 

om'i nous com'mon wealth tot'tered 

Reproduction. Copy the following selection, and be most par- 
ticular about every punctuation mark : 

"I think," said the child, with grave contempt, — "I think I 
shall dig a hole and bury my doll." " Poor thing," said I, " what 
has she done?" "Why," replied the child, in a sharp tone of 
injured feeling, " she's no use at all. I'm always saying, ' How do 
you do ? ' to her, and she — she never says, ' Very well, thank you.' " 

88 Seventh Year — First Half 

16. Being, therefore, sold at auction — alas ! what a vicis- 
situde for a chair that had figured in such high company ! 
— our venerable friend was knocked down to a certain Cap- 
tain John Hull. This old gentleman, on carefully examining 
the maimed chair, discovered that its broken leg might be 
clamped with iron and made as serviceable as ever; 

auc'tion vi cis'si tude ven'er a ble ser'vice a ble 

care'ful ly maimed clamped 

16. "A Continental Congress assembled at Philadelphia," 
said Grandfather, "and proposed such measures as they 
thought most conducive to the pubhc good. A Provincial 
Congress was likewise chosen in Massachusetts. They ex- 
horted the people to arm and discipline themselves. A 
great number of minute-men were enrolled." 

con ti nen'tal pro posed' con du'cive 

pro vin'cial ex hort'ed en rolled' 

17. "I was not aware," said Grandfather, with a civil 
salutation to his oaken companion, "that you possessed the 
faculty of speech. Otherwise I should often have been 
glad to converse with such a soHd, useful, and substantial, 
if not brilliant, member of society." 

— Nathaniel Hawthorne. 

a ware' sal u ta'tion fac'ul ty 

con verse' sub stan'tial so ci'e ty 

Seventh Year — First Half 89 

18. Nature is refining, elevating. How cunningly she 
hides every wrinkle of her inconceivable antiquity under 
roses, and violets, and morning dew! Every inch of the 
mountains is scarred by unimaginable convulsions, yet the 
new day is purple with the bloom of youth and love. 

— Ralph W. Emerson. 

re fi'ning cim'ning ly in con ceiv'a ble 

el'e va ting wrin'kle im im ag'i na ble 

con vul'sions an tiq'ui ty 

19. The riches of scholarship, the benignities of litera- 
ture, defy fortime and outlive calamity. As they cannot be 
inherited, so they cannot be alienated; but they may be 
shared, they may be distributed, and it is the object and 
office of a free public library to perform these beneficent 


— James Russell Lowell. 

schol'ar ship be nig'ni ties in her'i ted a'lien a ted 
dis trib'u ted be nef 'i cent func'tions 

20. " Read not," says Lord Bacon in his Essay of Studies, 
"to contradict and confute; nor to beUeve and take for 
granted ; nor to find talk and discourse ; but to weigh and 
consider. Some books are to be tasted, others to be swal- 
lowed, and some few to be chewed and digested." 

es'say con tra diet' con fute' dis course' di gest'ed 


Seventh Year — First Half 

21. The " Song of Hiawatha/' published in 1855, met with 
greater appreciation than any of Longfellow's previous writ- 
ings. The poem depicts with fidelity and truth the beautiful 
traditions of Indian life. The vivid portrayal shows an 
insight into the subject which could have been gained only 
by Longfellow's personal association with the Indian. 

tra di'tions 

ap pre ci a'tion 
as so ci a'tion 

de picts' fi del'i ty 
viv'id por tray'al 

22. And a himdred suns seamed looking 

At the combat of the wrestlers. 
Suddenly upon the greensward 
All alone stood Hiawatha, 
Panting with his wild exertion, 
Palpitating with the struggle ; 
And before him, breathless, lifeless, 
Lay the youth, with hair disheveled. 
Plumage torn, and garments tattered, 
Dead he lay there in the sunset. 

— Henry W. Longfellow. 


pal'pi ta ting 
di shev'eled 


ex er'tion 

Suggestion. Read carefully at home the " Song of Hiawatha." 
This may take two or three weeks. Then in school write the story 
that Longfellow told in his poem, using about 200 words. Close the 
account by a short quotation that appeals to you most strongly. 

Seventh Year — First Half 91 

23. At the request of our inspector, a representative of 
the committee on vocational schools addressed the class. 
Referring to letters received, he said, "Here is an applica- 
tion for a position ; here a letter of complaint ; another, en- 
closing a statement of expenses : all are of faulty construc- 

in spect'or com mit'tee rep re sent'a tive con struc'tion 
re f er'ring vo ca'tion al ap pli ca'tion ex pen'ses 

24. "The relations of the writer to the one addressed," 
he continued, "determine the form of the complimentary 
close. In letters of friendship it is customary to use, 
'Yours affectionately,' or 'Yours sincerely.' Occasionally, 
' Cordially yours,' is used in a friendly letter, but in business 
letters 'Yours respectfully,' is better form." 

re la'tions cus'tom a ry sin cere'ly 

com pli men'ta ry af f ec'tion ate ly oc ca'sion al ly 
cor'dial ly re spect'f ul ly 

26. After the Revolution the South lay dormant. Her 
plantations were mortgaged ; her population was decreas- 
ing ; industries were few and employment scarce. Then, 
in 1793, came the invention of the cotton-gin by Eli Whitney. 
"Seldom," says the historian, "has an economic force been 
so great a factor in the life of any people." 

dor'mant plan ta'tions mort'gaged pop u la'tion 

de creas'ing his to'ri an ec o nom'ic fac'tor 

92 Seventh Year — First Half 

26. The word "gin" is an abbreviation of engine. The 
cotton-gin is a machine for separating the seeds from the 
cotton fiber. With the cotton-gin a slave could separate, 
without tedious labor, fifty times as much cotton as he could 
by hand. Eventually cotton became a leading agricultural 
production of the South. 

ab bre vi a'tion te'di ous ag ri cul'tur al 

fi'ber e ven'tu al ly pro duc'tion 

27. With the expansion of the cotton industry came an 
increased demand for slaves. One writer has said of Whit- 
ney : "He was, through his invention, probably one of the 
most potent agencies for the extension of slavery." Un- 
doubtedly the cotton-gin contributed largely to the bitter 
struggle culminating in the Civil War. 

ex pan'sion con trib'u ted a'gen cies po'tent 

un doubt'ed ly cul'mi na ting ex ten'sion 

28. Formerly an expensive article, cotton now became 
cheap, and the demand for cotton wearing apparel increased. 
In the North the manufacture of cotton goods increased 
proportionally. As these goods came into competition with 
cotton goods from Europe, where factory labor was cheap, 
the manufacturers declared that a tariff or protective tax 
was desirable. 

ex pen'sive pro por'tion al ly tar'iff ap par'el 

com pe ti'tion pro tect'ive de sir'a ble 

Seventh Year — First Half 93 

29. The South having no manufactures to protect, in- 
sisted upon free trade. Her leaders declared that a pro- 
tective tariff was unconstitutional. The perplexing question 
began to assume significant proportions, and has since been 
of paramount issue. Shall we have tariff for revenue only, 
or a high protective tariff with frequent revision of schedules ? 

un con sti tuition al 

as siune' 

par'a mount 

re vi'sion 

per plex'ing 

sig nif 'i rant 

reVe nue 


30. When my eyes shall be turned to behold, for the last 
time, the s\m in heaven, may I not see him shining on the 
broken and dishonored fragments of a once glorious Union ; 
on States dissevered, discordant, belligerent ; on a land rent 
with civil feuds, or drenched, it may be, in fraternal blood ! 

— Daniel Webster. 

dis hon'ored 


dis sev'ered 

bd lig'er ent 


fra ter'nal 

94 Seventh Year — First Half 


A sufl5x is a word or syllable added to another word to 
modify its meaning. 

I. acy = being ; state of being 

accuracy, state of being accurate, 
delicacy, state of being delicate, 
obstinacy, state of being obstinate. 

II. ish = somewhat ; belonging to ; like 

greenish, somewhat green. 
Spanish, belonging to Spain, 
foolish, like a fool. 

III. ar, er, or = one who ; that which 

beggar, one who begs. 

reminder, that which brings back to mind; that which 

director, one who directs ; a leader. 

IV. less = without 

friendless, without a friend, 
cloudless, without a cloud, 
noiseless, without noise ; quiet. 

V. ness = having the quality of; state of being 

laziness, state of being lazy. 

clearness, having the quality of being clear. 

wildness, state or quality of being wild ; untamed state. 

Seventh Year — First Half 95 

VI. aw, ian = one who ; pertaining to 

American, one who is a native of America; pertaining to 

musician, one who excels in music, 
historian, one who writes history. 


A prefix is a word or syllable put before another word to 
modify its meaning. 

I. se = aside or apart 

secede (cedo, cessum), to go apart; to separate. 

seclude (claudo, clausum), to shut up apart ; to withdraw. 

select (lego, lectum), to gather apart; to choose. 

n. with = from; against 

withdraw, to draw from ; to remove ; to recall, 
withhold, to hold from ; to restrain ; decline to grant, 
withstand, to stand against ; to oppose ; to resist. 

in. e, ex = out ; out of 

educate (duco, ductum), to lead out ; to instruct. 

eject (jacio, jactum), to cast out. 

extract (traho, tractum), to draw or pull out. 

rV. re = back; again 

recede (cedo, cessum), to go back; to retreat. 

revoke (voco, vocatum), to call back ; to repeal. 

refuse (fundo, fusima), to pour back ; to deny ; to decline. 

96 Seventh Year — First Half 

V. iw, in = into ; in ; not 

immortal (mors, mortis), not subject to death ; imchanging. 
impress (premo, pressum), to press into ; to imprint, 
include (claudo, clausmn), to shut in ; to comprise. 

VI. pre = before 

prefix, something fixed or put before. 

prevent (venio, ventum), to come before ; to stop or hinder. 

predict (dico, dictmn), to tell before; to foretell. 


A stem is a f oimdation word to which prefixes and suflSxes 
may be added. The most important stems used in our 
language are taken from the Latin and Greek. 

I. capio^ captum {cipio, ceptum) = to take 

capable, able to take ; efficient, 
captive, one who is taken ; a prisoner, 
except, to take out ; to leave out. 

II. doceo, doctum = to teach 

docile, easily taught ; gentle. 

doctor, one who teaches ; a learned man. 

doctrine, a thing taught ; a principle of belief. 

III. porto, portatum = to carry ; to bring 

export, to carry out ; to send to another coimtry. 
import, to bring in ; to introduce from abroad. 

Seventh Year — First Half 97 

porter, one who carries burdens for hire, 
support, to carry beneath ; to keep from faUing. 

rV. scribo, scriptum = to write 

inscribe, to write m or on ; to engrave. 

prescribe, to write before ; to give as a law or direction. 

postscript, a writing after; something added to a letter 

after it is signed, 
drciunscribe, to write aroimd ; to limit. 

V. ponOy positum = to put ; to place 

expose, to place open ; to show openly, 
repose, to place back ; to rest. 

impostor, one who puts a false character in or upon; a 

VI. trahOy tractum = to draw ; to take 

extract, to draw or pull out. 
distract, to draw away ; to confuse ; disturb, 
treaty, an agreement drawn in formal manner ; a contract 
between two or more nations. 


Synonyms are words of like significance in the main; 
with a large extent of ground which they occupy in common, 
but also with something of their own, private and peculiar, 
which they do not share with one another. From Trench's 
Lectures "On the Study of Words." 

98 Seventh Year — First Half 

I. Pride — Vanity 

Pride — An unreasonable belief in one's superiority as 
regards wealth, beauty, talents, etc. 

Vanity — A desire to gain admiration in a small way. 

Pride and vanity both have some foimdation in fact. A 
man is proui of his Uterary talent, of his wealth or rank ; 
he is vain of his dress or person. Pride is associated with 
strength and vanity with weakness. 

II. Custom — Habit 

Custom — The frequent repetition of the same act. 

Hahit — The effect of such repetition. 

Custom, is chiefly concerned with the action of many; 
hahit with the action of one. We speak of the customs of 
society, and the habits of individuals. 

III. Enough — Sufficient 

Enough — Adequate for the demand or expectation. 

Sufficient — All that is really needful. 

A greedy child may have a sufficient amount of candy, but 
this may not be enough to satisfy him. We speak of enough' 
food and of sufficient time. 

IV. Modest — Bashful 

Modest — Marked by reserve or propriety. 

Bashful — Shrinking from public notice ; easily confused. 
A person may be modest in the display of his talents to 
others ; he is bashful when he shrinks from another without 

Seventh Year — First Half 99 

V. Industry — Diligence 

Industry — Habitual and steady application to work. 

Diligence — Careful and persevering effort to accomplish 
what is undertaken. A pupil may be diligent for a time 
without meriting the title of industrious. If you have 
taients, industry will improve them. 

VI. Clumsy — Awkward 

Clumsy — Uncouth and bungling. 

Awkward — Ungraceful in person or manner. An awk- 
ward person may become graceful by training, but a clumsy 
person can never lose his clumsiness. We speak of clumsy 
fingers and of an awkward manner. 

VII. Character — Reputation 

Character — The smn of a man's quaUties. 

RepiUation — The estimation in which a person is held by 
others. Character is what one is ; reputation is what one is 
thought to be. We speak of a person having a fine or 
sterling character^ and of possessing an excellent reputation. 

VIII. Education — Instruction 

Education — A systematic development of the mind. 

Instruction — Literally a building up, or storing the 
mind with useful information. A person may be in- 
structed about many things, and yet not be really educated. 
Education properly belongs to the period of childhood and 
youth ; instruction may be given at different ages. 


1. Dr. Butler of Columbia University holds that a person 
possessing these qualifications is fully educated : 

Correctness and precision in the use of the mother tongue ; 
those refined and gentle manners which are the fixed habits 
of thought and action ; the power and habit of reflection ; 
the power of intellectual growth ; efficiency, the power to do. 

u ni ver'si ty re flec'tion qual i fi captions 

in tel lec'tu al pre ci'sion ef fi'cien cy 

2. Colonel Roosevelt says, "Character is resolution, 
courage, energy, power of self-control combined with fear- 
lessness in taking the initiative and assimiing responsibility ; 
a just regard for the rights of others, together with unflinch- 
ing determination to succeed, no matter what obstacles and 
barriers have to be beaten down.'' 

colo'nel de ter mi na'tion un flinch'ing res o lu'tion 
bar'ri ers re spon si bil'i ty as su'ming in i'ti a tive 

3. The dictagraph is an instrument for magnifying and 
transmitting soimd. It is sometimes used to carry the 
conversation of persons suspected of crime. Because of 
its convenience, detectives frequently have recourse to this 
method of securing evidence. 

dic'ta graph mag'ni fy ing con ve'nience 

re course' trans mit'ting de tect'ives 

Seventh Year — Second Half loi 

4. To avoid confusion in computing time and in the nar- 
ration of events in chronological sequence, a uniform calen- 
dar is indispensable. 

A natural or solar year is the time required by the earth 
to make one revolution aroimd the sun. The calendar year 
is arranged to correspond with the solar year. 

con fu'sion chron o log'i cal cal'en dar com pu'ting 
se'quence in dis pen'sa ble nar ra'tion u'ni form 

6. Julius Caesar with the help of a Greek astronomer 
amended the irregular Roman calendar. They planned to 
have the year consist of three hundred sixty-five and a 
quarter days, and in order to dispense with the fraction, 
designated every fourth year as leap year. This was, 
however, eleven minutes in excess of the true year. 

Ju'U us ir reg'u lar as tron'o mer des'ig na ted 

ex cess' a mend'ed dis pense' 

6. These minutes accmnulated until in 1582 they 
amounted to ten days. To rectify the error Pope Gregory 
XIII ordered that ten days be omitted. He also originated 
the Gregorian calendar which decreed that years which may 
be evenly divided by one himdred but not by four hundred 
are not leap years. 

ac cu'mu la ted o rig'i na ted rec'ti fy Greg'o ry 

o mit'ted de creed' Gre go'ri an 

I02 Seventh Year — Second Half 

7. Thus, while 1600 was a leap year, 1700 was not. This 
method of reckoning makes the calendar year almost iden- 
tical with the solar year. 

To have the majority of countries using exactly the same 
calendar is very convenient. Russia did not acknowledge 
the authority of Pope Gregory and still adheres to the old 

reck'on ing ex act'ly i den'tic al 

ac knowl'edge ma jor'i ty ad heres' 

8. Proper breathing exercises are of great value. It is 
not necessary to have an elaborate system. One very good 
exercise consists in inhaling a deep breath through the nos- 
trils, retaining it a few seconds, and then, with the hps 
adjusted as though one intended to whistle, expelling it 
slowly through the contracted orifice. 

e lab'o rate re tain'ing in ha'ling ad just'ed 

nos'trils expel'ling contract'ed or'ifice 

9. Relative to the habit of cigarette smoking, Edison, 
the Wizard of Menlo Park, says: "The substance formed 
from the burning paper wrapper has a violent action on the 
nerve centers, producing degeneration of the cells of the 
brain. Unhke the eflFect of most narcotics, this degenera- 
tion is permanent and uncontrollable." 

rel'a tive sub'stance cig a rette' pro du'cing 

wiz'ard de gen er a'tion nar cot'ics un con trol'la ble 

Seventh Year — Second Half 103 

10. If you are tempted to be angry, pause a moment and 
still the rising activities. Deal in the same way with the 
tendency to be annoyed, resentful, or depressed. Remem- 
ber that if you spare yourself these useless expenditures of 

-force, you husband and increase your energy. 

— Horatio W. Dresser. 

ac tiv'i ties re sent'ful tend'en cy 

de pressed' an noyed' ex pend'i tures 

11. Sir, we have done everything that could be done to 
avert the storm which is now coming on. We have peti- 
tioned ; we have remonstrated ; we have supplicated ; we 
have prostrated ourselves before the throne, and have im- 
plored its interposition to arrest the tyrannical hands of 
the ministry and ParUament. _ p^^^^^^ ^^^ 

pe ti'tioned pros'tra ted re mon'stra ted 

in ter po si'tion sup'pli ca ted ty ran'nic al 

min'is try 

12. Science, which is knowledge systematized, has con- 
tributed powerfully to the well-being and progress of man- 
kind. Every new invention is the embodiment of some 
scientific idea. Discoveries in science, which seem remote 
from the interests of every-day life, ultimately confer incal- 
culable benefits on mankind. 

sci'ence . pow'er ful ly sci en tif 'ic prog'ress 

sys'tem a tized ul'ti mate ly in cal'cu la ble 

I04 Seventh Year — Second Half 

13. Science has greatly advanced the medical profession ; 
thus it has lengthened life ; it has increased the fertility of 
the soil ; it has lighted up the night with the splendor of 
the day ; it has extended the range of human vision, and 
has annihilated distance. 

advanced' fertil'ity med'ical splen'dor 

an ni'hi la ted length'ened vi'sion 

14. Laziness is a vice because it sacrifices the permanent 
interest of self-support to the temporary inclination to in- 
dolence and ease. Laziness is weakness, submission, defeat, 
slavery to feeling and circumstance ; and these are the uni- 
versal characteristics of vice. 

— Wm. DeWitt Hyde, D.D. 

la'zi ness in cli na'tion self-support' 

tem'po ra ry sub mis'sion char ac ter is'tics 

in'do lence 

16. Li equatorial regions where the rainfall is abundant, 
forest vegetation is wonderfully dense and luxuriant. The 
great trees stand close together, their branches intermingling. 
They are often covered and interlaced with hundreds of 
climbing vines and air plants. 

e qua to'ri al won'der ful ly a bun'dant 

veg e ta'tion in ter min'gling in ter laced' 

lux u'ri ant 

Seventh Year — Second Half 105 

16. Many warm-blooded animals, such as whales, por- 
poises, seals, and walruses, live part or all of the time in the 
sea, but come to the surface to breathe. Hosts of true 
fishes, as sharks, mackerel, haUbut, sturgeon, and the many 
kinds of shell-fish, as oysters and lobsters, can live and 
breathe imder water. 

por'pois es mack'er el wal'rus es hal'i but 

lob'sters breathe stur'geon 

17. Light penetrates the ocean to a comparatively sKght 
depth and the water is very cold ; hence vegetable life is 
more plentiful in shallow water, near the surface. This 
being true, animal life is more abundant there also, though 
some marine animals make their habitations at the bottom 
of the sea. 

pen'e trates plen'ti ful com par'a tive ly shal'low 
hab i ta'tions depth ma rine' 

18. The Yellowstone National Park is a tract of land 
originally comprising 3575 square miles in northwestern 
Wyoming. It was set apart by the Federal government to 
preserve from destructive molestation, the most remark- 
able group of natural features and phenomena known within 
the boundaries of the United States. 

com pri'sing Wy o'ming f ed'er al 

mol es ta'tion phe nom'en a bound'a ries 



io6 Seventh Year — Second Half 

19. The park contains wonderful geysers from which 
water and steam are ejected in fountain-like columns. The 
locality also abounds in hot springs in which are found 
mineral deposits. Mountains, evidently of volcanic origin 
though now extinct, rise in great grandeur upon a plateau. 

gey'sers de pos'its ex tinct' 

ev'i dent ly gran'deur lo cal'i ty 

vol can'ic pla teau' 

20. Of the geysers. Excelsior is the greatest in size. Old 
Faithful is entitled to its name because of its regularity. 
Frequent observations have proved the well-nigh incred- 
ible fact, that at each eruption, which is of regular recur- 
rence every sixty-four minutes, Old Faithful discharges one 
and a half miUion gallons of water. 

ex cel'si or ob ser va'tion en ti'tled in cred'i ble 

reg u lar'i ty e rup'tion re cur'rence dis char'ges 

21. The falls and canyons of the Yellowstone are con- 
sidered the most wonderful in the world. Petrified trees 
are common. Wild animals may be approached near enough 
to be photographed. Travelers come from every quarter 
of the globe. All sorts of transportation facilities may be 
secured or, if preferable, one may use a private equipment. 

can'yon trans por ta'tion pet'ri fied fa cil'i ties 

pho'to graphed e quip'ment prefer a ble 

Seventh Year — Second Half 107 

22. The greatest vigilance is observed by the park cus- 
todians. Regulations prescribe that visitors shall not re- 
move specimens or post advertisements. Visitors are also 
prohibited from injuring any living thing except in self- 
defense. No one is permitted to remove any object ex- 
cept for scientific purposes, and under the strictest scrutiny. 

vig'i lance spec'i mens cus to'di ans 

pre scribe' pro hib'it ed self-de f ense' 

ad ver tise'ment scru'ti ny 

23. Rip looked and beheld a precise counterpart of him- 
self — apparently as lazy, and certainly as ragged. The 
poor fellow was now completely confounded. He doubted 
his own identity, and whether he was himself or another 
man. In the midst of his bewilderment, the man in the 
cocked hat demanded who he was. 

— WAsmNGTON Irving. 

pre cise' coim'ter part ap par'ent ly 

con f ound'ed i den'ti ty be wil'der ment 

24. "An oimce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.'' 
How many disastrous fires could be prevented if we realized 
the truth of this maxim, and exercised proper care in han- 
dling inflammable fluids like alcohol, kerosene, gasoline, 
naphtha, and turpentine. 

preven'tion inflam'mable disas'trous al'cohol 
max'im ker'osene gas'oline naph'tha 

io8 Seventh Year — Second Half 

26. Numerous are the appliances used in a city fire de- 
partment: axes, ladders, chemical engines, water-towers, 
door-openers for opening a door without damaging it, and 
many other ingenious contrivances. When raised perpen- 
dicularly by hydraulic pressure, the water-tower can direct 
a vast volmne of water into a building. 

nu'mer ous chem'ic al in gen'ious 

per pen dic'u lar ly ap pli'an ces dam'a ging 

con triVan ces hy drau'lic pres'sure 

26. The soldier is animated by the noblest sentiment in 
the heart of man, — the welfare of his country. The fire- 
man has not this incentive ; yet it is an undeniable fact, 
that in fulfilling his duty, he often exhibits a bravery im- 
surpassed in the annals of war. 

an'i ma ted in cen'tive sen'ti ment un de ni'a ble 
wel'f are f ul fil'ling an'nals 

27. To secure practical instruction in the course in busi- 
ness methods, it has been suggested that the classes be sup- 
plied with printed forms of receipts, absence blanks, inves- 
tigation slips, invoices, and promissory notes. 

sug gest'ed re ceipts' in ves ti ga'tion 

ab'sence inVoi ces prom'is so ry 

Language work. Write the plural form of volume, coimtry, class, 
department, duty, fireman. 

Seventh Year — Second Half 109 

28. Pupils must have daily practice in filling out these 
blanks. They will be required to aflSx their signatures to 
the tickets attached to the blanks, and file the same with 
the secretary. In estimating the value of these exercises a 
premium is to be placed on neatness, accuracy, and legibility. 

sig'na tures sec're tar y es'ti ma ting 

pre'mi um ac'cu ra cy leg i bil'i ty 

29. When a man has become impoverished by fraud, or 
has been deprived dishonestly of what is rightfully his own, 
his poverty is no disgrace ; but the destitution following in 
the wake of extravagance and self-indulgence is not only 
disgraceful but demoralizing. 

im pov'er ished dis grace'f ul self -in dul'gence 

right'f ul ly des ti tu'tion ex trav'a gance 

de mor'al iz ing 

30. Six things are requisite to create a happy home. 
Integrity must be the architect and tidiness the upholsterer. 
It must be warmed by affection, lighted up with cheerful- 
ness, and industry must be the ventilator, renewing the 
atmosphere, and bringing in fresh salubrity day by day. 

— Hamilton. 

req'ui site ti'di ness up hol'ster er 

ven'ti la tor at'mos phere sa lu'bri ty 

no Seventh Year — Second Half 


A suflax is a word or syllable added to another word to 
modify its meaning. 

I. ard = one who 

sluggard, one who is lazy or idle; a drone. 

dotard, one whose mind is impaired ; one given to foolish 

niggard, one who is a miser. 

II. Aom = place where ; state of being 

dukedom, place where a duke reigns, 
freedom, state of being free ; Uberty. 
wisdom, state of being wise ; knowledge. 

III. ive = one who ; having power 

captive (capio, captum), one who is taken ; a prisoner, 
preventive, having power to prevent, 
corrective, having power to correct. 

rV. mevt = act of ; state of being ; that which 

chastisement, act of punishment, 
excitement, state of being excited ; agitation, 
accompaniment, that which accompanies. 

V. ery^ ry = state of being ; place where ; art or practice 

bravery, state of being brave ; heroism, 
bakery, place where baking is done, 
dentistry, art or practice of a dentist. 

Seventh Year — Second Half iii 

VI. 6/e, ahle^ ible = that may or can be ; worthy of 

noble (nosco, notum), worthy of being known ; high-minded, 
blamable, that may or can be blamed ; faulty, 
discernible, that may or can be seen. 


A prefix is a word or syllable put before another word to 
modify its meaning. 

I. sine (sim) = without 

sinecure (cura), without care ; a position with few duties, 
sincere (cera), without wax (formerly applied to honey) ; 

true; real; genuine, 
simple (pUce), without fold ; plain ; clear. 

II. ob {oc, ofy op) = in the way ; against ; before 

object (jacio, jactum), to throw before ; to oppose. 
oJBFend (fendo, fensum), to strike against; to displease, 
oppose (pono, positimi), to put in the way ; to object to. 

III. be = to make 

benumb, to make numb ; to stupefy, 
becalm, to make calm ; to make quiet. 

IV. con (cOy col, com, cor, etc.) = together ; with 
connect (necto, neximi), to tie together; to join, 
collect (ligo, ligatum), to gather together ; to assemble. 

112 Seventh Year — Second Half 

V. pro = for; forward; out. 

proceed (cedo, cessum), to go forward; to continue, 
propel (pello, pulsum), to drive forward; force onward, 
proclaim (clamo, clamatum), to call out; to announce. 

VI. de = down; from 

depose (pono, positum), to put down ; to remove, 
decline (clino), to bend down ; to refuse, 
depend (pendeo), to hang from; to rely on. 


A stem is a foundation word to which prefixes and suffixes 
may be added. The most important stems used in our 
language are taken from the Latin and the Greek. 

I. annus (enn) = a circle ; a year 

annual, pertaining to a year ; yearly. 

annuity, state of being a year ; a yearly allowance. 

biennial, occurring every two years. 

n. habeo, habitum (hibio, hibitum) = to have ; to hold ; 

to dwell 

inhabitant, one who dwells in a certain place. 

exhibit, to hold out ; to display. 

disable, to have or hold from ; to impair. 

Seventh Year — Second Half 113 

in. video^ visum = to see 

evident, seeing out ; plain ; apparent. 

invisible, that may or cannot be seen ; imperceptible. 

provident, seeing forward ; providing for ; careful. 

IV. maoeo^ motum = to move 

remove, to move back ; to put from place to place, 
movable, that may or can be moved, 
emotion, a moving out ; excitement of mind. 

V. jero^ latum = to bear ; to carry ; to bring 

refer, to bear back; to allude; to give to another for decision. 
ojBfer, to bear before ; to present for acceptance, 
dilate, to carry apart ; to expand or swell. 

VI. dico^ dictum = to say 

dictate, to say in an authoritative manner ; to utter, 
contradict, to say against ; to deny or oppose, 
predict, to say or tell before ; to foretell. 


Sjoionyms are words of like significance in the main; 
with a large extent of groimd which they occupy in common, 
but also with something of their own, private and peculiar, 
which they do not share with one another. From Trench's 
Lectures "On the Study of Words." 

114 Seventh Year — Second Half 

I. Beautiful — Pretty 

Beautiful — Excelling in form or grace. 

Pretty — Marked by beauty of a delicate or inferior kind. 
Pretty denotes the same qualities as beautiful does, but in a 
far less degree. We speak of beautiful scenery or a beautiful 
thought ; we speak of a pretty dress or hat. 

II. Expect — Hope 

Expect — To look forward to, as certain or probable. 

Hope — To desire strongly. We may expect an occurrence 
which will give us pain, but we do not hope for it. We 
expect a letter ; the old must expect to die. In bad weather 
we hope it will soon clear. 

III. Obstinate — Stubborn 

Obstinate — Unyielding to argument, and bent on having 
one's own way. 

Stubborn — Inflexible in opinion or intention. The most 
amiable person may be obstinate on some one point; the 
stubborn person is for the most part habitually so. We 
speak of a stubborn horse or mule. One's plans may meet 
with obstinate opposition. 

IV. Acknowledge — Confess 

Acknowledge — To own or admit. 

Confess — To admit oneself to be guilty. We acknowl- 
edge what we have done, good or bad ; we confess our faults. 
A person acknowledges that he assisted another; he am- 
fesses that he told an untruth. 

Seventh Year — Second Half 1 1 5 

V. Announce — Proclaim 

Announce — To publish the intelligence of. 

Proclaim — To announce aloud or in a pubUc manner. 
A thing is announced in a formal manner to many or few ; 
it is proclaimed to the neighborhood. A guest is announced; 
peace is proclaimed. 

VI. Delicious — Delightful 

Delicious — Extremely pleasant to the senses. 

Delightful — Affording deh'ght or pleasure to the mind. 
We speak of delicious fruit or a delicious odor ; we speak of 
delightful music or of delightful scenery, because in the latter 
instances the higher senses are appealed to. 

VTI. Behavior — Conduct 

Behavior — Manner of conducting oneself; deportment. 

Conduct — The deeds of a person collectively considered. 
Behavior is our action in the presence of others; conduct 
includes also that which is known only to ourselves. We 
may admire the behavior of a person on the street or in 
church ; we may say that a man's conduct has always been 
beyond reproach. 

VIII. Enemy — Foe 

Enemy — One who is unfriendly. 

Foe — One who entertains resentment or malice toward 
another. An enemy is not so formidable as a. foe; the former 
may be reconciled, but the latter never. A man may be 
an enemy to himself, but not a foe. 


1. There is always a new horizon for onward-looking 
men, and although we dwell on a small planet, immersed 
in petty business and not enduring beyond a brief period 
of years, we are so constituted that our hopes are inacces- 
sible, like stars, and the term of hoping is prolonged until 

the t^rm of life. 

— Robert L. Stevenson. 

ho ri'zon im mersed' pe'ri od in ac ces'si ble 

brief pro longed' con'sti tu ted ho 'ping 

2. All nature is but art, unknown to thee ; 

All chance, direction, which thou canst not see ; 

All discord, harmony, not understood ; 

All partial evil, universal good ; 

And spite of pride, in erring reason's spite, 

One truth is clear, — whatever is, is right. 

— Alexander Pope. 

dis'cord par'tial er'ring har'mo ny what ev'er 

3. In the fifteenth century the interior of France was 
devastated by years of ceaseless warfare over the succession 
to the throne. The claimants were the Dauphin, or eldest 
son of the French king, and Henry V of England. The 
latter had contracted an alliance with a French princess, 
and insisted on the recognition of their son. 

in te'ri or cease'less sue ces'sion al li'ance 

dev'as ta ted war'f are claim'ants rec og ni'tion 


Eighth Year — First Half 117 

4. In accordance with an invariable custom, the heredi- 
tary kings of France were always crowned in the cathedral 
at Rheims. Charles, the Dauphin, felt confident that if 
he could be duly crowned as the rightful sovereign, his 
daim would then be indisputable. 

ac cord'ance he red'i ta ry du'ly 

in va'ri a ble con'fi dent in dis'pu ta ble 

6. The ceremony was impossible, however, because 
Rheims was occupied by a formidable garrison of English 
soldiers. Charles did not seem capable of capturing the 
city, because he was devoid of the necessary heroism, and 
spent his time participating in trivial pleasures inaugurated 
for his diversion in the castles south of Orleans. 

for'mi.da ble ca'pa ble her'o ism triv'i al 

gar'ri son de void' par tic'i pa ting di ver'sion 

6. Orleans was the most strongly fortified city of France, 
and the inhabitants sincerely sympathized with their king. 
The program of the Enghsh was to capture the city despite 
its stubborn resistance. "The Story of Joan of Arc" by 
Andrew Lang tells very simply how the city was miracu- 
lously saved by a lowly peasant girl. 

for'ti fied sym'pa thized stub'bom mi rac'u lous ly 
pro'gram in hab'it ants peas'ant re sist'ance 

ii8 Eighth Year — First Half 

7. Joan of Arc was bom in Domremy in 141 2 of devout 
parents, whose great anxiety was to rear their family in 
the fear of God. Her early years, filled with monotonous 
duties, gave no hint of the subsequent tragedy of her life. 
On account of poverty, she had scant leisiure and was grate- 
ful for simple pleasures. 

de vout' mon ot'o nous trag'e dy lei'sure 

anx i'e ty sub'se quent pov'er ty grate'ful 

8. When she was thirteen, Joan reached a crisis in her life. 
Her demeanor changed entirely, and she declared celestial 
voices were perpetually teUing her that she was destined 
to deliver France from the English. Even those who 
thought the voices imaginary said, "She seems marvelously 
happy, lifting her eyes to Heaven." 

cri'sis ce les'tial per pet'u al ly 

de mean'or des'tined im ag'i na ry 

9. When Joan was sixteen, she aflirmed most forcibly 
that she heard a constant repetition of the prophetic voices. 
She said the call was irresistible and that despite all conse- 
quences, she must seek the Dauphin. She declared in the 
most fervent manner that she heard: "Daughter of God, 
go on ! I shall be with you." 

af firmed' rep e ti'tion con'se quen ces f erVent 
f or'ci bly pro phet'ic ir re sist'i ble 

Eighth Year — First Half 119 

10. As nothing seemed to discourage Joan, her father 
finally sanctioned her departure. When she reached the 
castle, she did not appear embarrassed either by the sump- 
tuous surroundings or by the unaccustomed court etiquette. 
She simply begged the privilege of being taken into the 
presence of the Dauphin. 

em bar'rassed et'i quette sanc'tioned 

sump'tu ous priv'i lege un ac cus'tomed 

11. When the Dauphin received the Maid, he wore a 
costume of severe simplicity, in order to deceive her, but 
she went directly to him and knelt at his feet. He thought 
this convincing evidence of her divine power, and at her 
earnest solicitation, he promised to terminate the gayeties 
at court and advance against the English who were besieging 

cos'timie de ceive' gay'e ties 

se vere' so lie i ta'tion be sieg'ing ter'mi nate 

12. The Dauphin, who was usually indijBFerent and vac- 
illating, became suddenly imbued with the righteousness 
of their cause. He and the Maid marched with great 
rapicfity to Orleans, thwarted the plans of the English, and 
raised the siege. The people received them in the most 
enthusiastic manner, and Joan has since been known as the 
"Maid of Orleans." 

in differ ent en thu si as'tic im bued' thwart'ed 
vac'il la ting right'eous ness ra pid'i ty 

I20 Eighth Year — First Half 

13. The surrender of the English removed the last vestige 
of opposition in southern France. The Maid counseled the 
Dauphin to proceed at once to Rheims, and he felt that 
the time was propitious for continuing his campaign. He 
entered Rheims accompanied by the Maid and was crowned 
in the great cathedral. 

sur ren'der ves'tige op po si'tion coim'seled 

pro pi'tious con tin'u ing cam paign' ac com'pa nied 

14. The French were indebted to Joan for many victories, 
but when she was taken captive, no one attempted to rescue 
her from martyrdom. The English, clamorous for her life, 
tried her for being a witch. She was finally condemned to 
be burned. There was no one to intercede for her, so she 
paid for her loyalty with her life. 

indebt'ed cap'tive clam'orous witch 

condemned' intercede' loy'alty mar'tyrdom 

16. An eminent French artist, Bastien-Lepage, has 
painted an exquisite picture called "Joan of Arc Listening 
to the Voices." It is a representation of Joan of Arc wear- 
ing a mournful expression and gazing into the depths of the 
forest. The phantom figure at her right represents the 
guardian spirit on whose counsel she was dependent. 

em'i nent mourn'ful phan'tom 

ex'qui site guard'i an rep re sen ta'tion de pend'ent 

Eighth Year — First Half 121 

16. It is by affiction that the heart of man is purified, 
and the thoughts are fixed on a better state. Prosperity, 
alloyed and imperfect as it is, has power to intoxicate the 
imagination, and to make him who enjoys affluence and 
honors forget the hand by which they were bestowed. 

— Dr. Samuel Johnson. 

pu'ri fied im per'f ect im ag i na'tion 

al loyed' in tox'i cate af 'flu ence 

17. Don't flatter yourself that friendship authorizes you 
to say disagreeable things to your intimates. On the con- 
trary, the nearer you come into relation with a person, the 
more necessary do tact and courtesy become. Except in 
cases of necessity, leave your friend to learn impleasant 

truths from his enemies. 

— Oliver W. Holmes. 

flat'ter dis a gree'a ble con'tra ry 

au'thor i zes in'ti mates ne ces'si ty 

18. 'Tis common proof. 

That lowliness is young ambition's ladder. 

Whereto the climber-upward turns his face ; 

But when he once attains the upmost roimd. 

He then imto the ladder turns his back, 

Looks in the clouds, scorning the base degrees 

By which he did ascend. 

— Shakespeare. 

122 Eighth Year — First Half 

proof low'liness ambi'tion climb'er 

attains' scom'ing degrees' ascend' 

19. The ceremonies attending the coronation of an 
English king have certain symbolic values. The anointing 
is a Hebrew rite. The crowning by a priest is a survival 
of the early days of Christianity. There is also a political 
ceremonial which has been inherited from the time of 

corona'tion symbol'ic anoint'ing He'brew 

survi'val Chris ti an'i ty ceremo'nial feu'dalism 

20. A little consideration of what takes place aroimd us 
would show us that a higher law than that of our will regu- 
lates events ; that our painful labors are often unnecessary 
and fruitless; that only in our easy, simple, spontaneous 
action are we strong, and by contenting ourselves with 
obedience we become divine. — Ralph W. Emerson. 

un nec'es sa ry reg'u lates pain'f ul f ruit'less 

spon ta'ne ous our selves' o be'di ence 

21. Every year thousands of tourists go to Europe simply 
to rest and recuperate from excessive fatigue, or to visit the 
various springs that abound there. These waters, beneficial 
in many ways, serve as an antidote for dyspepsia, rhetuna- 
tism, and some forms of neuralgia. 

Eighth Year — First Half 123 

tour'ists fa tigue' dys pep'si a 

re cu'per ate ben e fi'cial rheu'ma tism 

ex cess'ive an'ti dote neur al'gi a 

22. If you should take a morning stroll in the vicinity of 
one of the world-renowned springs, you would probably 
meet dozens of patients walking most energetically, in order 
to rid themselves of superfluous weight. After drinking the 
unpalatable waters, they leave the sanitarium and walk 
miles in the bracing moimtain air. 

vi cin'i ty en er get'ic al ly im pal'a ta ble 

re nowned' su per'flu ous san i ta'ri um 

23. Hark ! 'tis the bluebird's venturous strain, 
High in the old fringed elm at the gate ; 
Sweet-voiced, valiant on the swaying bough, 

Alert, elate, 
Dodging the fitful spits of snow, 
New England's poet laureate. 
Telling us spring has come again. 

— Thomas Bailey Aldrich. 

ven'turous fringed val'iant sway'ing 

dodg'ing fit'ful lau'reate 

Language work. Write the adjectives on this page, and check 
the nouns that are used as adjectives. Underline those that may be 
compared by using er and est. 

124 Eighth Year — First Half 

24. Our work consists in taming, subduing, and evangeli- 
zing the evil self, and in restoring harmony with the good 
self. Salvation lies in abandoning the evil self in principle 
and in taking refuge with the other, the divine self, and 
making it into a less and less rebellious instrument of good. 

— Henri Frederic Amiel. 

ta'ming e van'gel i zing refuge 

sub du'ing sal va'tion a ban'don ing 

25. Niagara Falls, on the boundary between Canada and 
New York, is one of the wonders of our continent, and is 
visited yearly by thousands of Americans and by many 
foreigners. An incessant flow of water pours over a preci- 
pice of a thousand feet in height, and rushes, with frightful 
impetus, into the river below. 

Ni ag'a ra Can'a da prec'i pice boimd'a ry 
for'eign ers im'pe tus in ces'sant 

26. Few who gaze in fascination upon this wonderful flow 
of water, know the romantic legend connected with these 
falls. The ceaseless roar of the cataract beggars all descrip- 
tion, and so the superstitious Indians used to think that 
this sound was the voice of a mighty spirit which dwelt in 
the waters. 

fas ci na'tion beg'gars ro man'tic 

cat'a ract leg'end su per sti'tious 

Eighth Year — First Half 125 

27. Centuries ago primitive tribes offered a yeariy sacri- 
fice to the Spirit of Niagara. The sacrifice was a maiden 
who was sent over the precipice in a white canoe decorated 
with garlands of flowers. This martyrdom was an enviable 
honor for which all girls contended, each believing that when 
her body was consigned to the water, her spirit was received 
with special distinction in the "happy himting ground." 

prim'i tive maid'en gar'lands 

con tend'ed con signed' dis tinc'tion 

en'vi a ble 

28. The last sacrifice of which we have a reliable account 
was in 1679 when the beautiful daughter of the chieftain. 
Eagle Eye, was chosen. On the day when this incident 
occurred, the stalwart chieftain, suppressing all emotion, 
walked deliberately to the shore where every individual of 
his tribe had gathered, to watch the white canoe make its 
perilous journey. 

reli'able stal'wart suppress'ing 

per'ilous in'cident deUb'erately 

chieftain in di vid'u al 

Language work. Learn what you can about the Indian School 
at Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Compare the Indians of 1679 with the 
graduates of this school. 

126 Eighth Year — First Half 

29. Eagle Eye stood like a statue showing all the fortitude 
of his race, but at the critical moment, when the tiny canoe 
became unmanageable and destruction was imminent, a 
father's affection triumphed. The chieftain, hoping to avert 
the catastrophe, leaped into his own canoe and attempted to 
overtake his daughter, but they were both huried to instant 
death. The Indians were disconsolate, but they were sus- 
tained by the thought that their dead lived as spirits, — he 
as the Ruler of the Cataract and she as the Maid of the Mist. 

f or'ti tude crit'ic al im'mi nent cat as'tro phe 

dis con'so late hurled sustained' im man'age a ble 

30. The fancied land proved to be nothing but an even- 
ing cloud, and had vanished in the night. With dejected 
hearts the sailors once more resumed their western course, 
from which Columbus would never have varied, but in 
compliance with their clamorous wishes. The continued 
signs of land diverted the attention of the crews, and in- 
sensibly beguiled them onward. 

— Washington Irving. 

fan'ded deject'ed resumed' va'ried 

com pli'ance di vert'ed be guiled' 

Language work. Use as a topic sentence: ''A good surgeon 
must have an eagle's eye, a lion's heart, a lady's hand." Explain 
its meaning, in not more than loo words. 

Eighth Year — First Half 127 


A suflSx is a word or syllable added to another word to 
modify its meaning. 

I. lie = belonging to ; easily 

hostile (hostis), belonging to an enemy; unfriendly, 
juvenile (juvenis), belonging to youth; youthful, 
fragile (frango, fractum), easily broken; frail. 

II. ion = act of ; state of being 

expulsion (pello, pulsum), act of driving out forcibly, 
corruption, state of being corrupt ; destruction ; depravity, 
precision, state of being precise or correct ; exactness. 

III. /y, ijy = to make 
fortify (fortis), to make strong. 

magnify (magnus), to make to appear larger, 
beautify, to make beautiful. 

IV. ance^ ancy^ ence^ ency = state of being ; ing 
assistance (sisto), a standing to ; help ; aid. 

constancy (sto), state of standing with ; firmness ; stability, 
eloquence (loquor, locutus), a speaking out ; lofty and fluent 

V. ary = one who ; place where ; pertaining to 
adversary (verto, versum), one who turns to another in 

anger ; an enemy, 
library (liber), place where books are kept, 
pulmonary (pulmon), pertaining to the lungs. 

128 Eighth Year — First Half 

VI. mony = state of being ; thing that 

matrimony (mater), state of being a mother; marriage, 
acrimony (acris), state of being sharp ; ill nature, 
testimony (testis), the thing that is aflSirmed by a witness. 


A prefix is a word or syllable put before another word to 
modify its meaning. 

I. super ^ sur = above ; over ; upon 

superfine, over fine ; above what is fine, 
supersede (sedeo, sessum), to sit above another ; to displace, 
survive (vivo, victum),to live over or after; to outlive, 
survey (video, visum), to see or look upon; to view carefully. 

II. per = through; thoroughly 

perennial (annus), continuing through the year; imf ailing, 
perfect (facio, factum), made through or thoroughly; ex- 
perforate (foro, foratus), to make holes through. 

III. W, his = two ; twice 

biped (pes, pedis), an animal having two feet, 
bicycle (cyclus), a vehicle with two tandem wheels, 
bisect (seco, sectum), to cut into two equal parts. 

Eighth Year — First Half 129 

rV, circum = around or about 

circumscribe (scribo, scriptum), to write around ; to restrict, 
circumspect (specio, spectum), looking around ; cautious, 
circiunstance (sto, statum), a standing around ; incident. 

V. memo = one; alone 

monologue (logo), that which is spoken by one person alone, 
monogram (gramma), several letters written or woven into 

monocle (oculus), an eyeglass for one eye. 

VI. pan (pant, panto) = all 

panacea (akos), a cure-all; a remedy supposed to cure all 

Pan-American, pertaining to the whole of America, both 

North and South, 
pantomime (mimos), imitating all ; action without dialogue. 


A stem is a foundation word to which prefixes and sufl&xes 
may be added. The most important stems used in our 
language are taken from the Latin and the Greek. 

I. ago, actum = to act ; to do ; to move 

agile, moving easily ; quick, 
agent, one who or that which acts for another, 
transact, to act or to carry through ; to do. 
counteract, to act against ; to hinder. 

130 Eighth Year — First Half 

II. manus = the hand 

manual, pertaining to the hand ; a handbook, 
manuscript (scribo, scriptum), something written by hand, 
emancipate (capio, captimi), to take the hand out; to set 

III. facio, factum (ficio, fectum) = to make ; to act 

facile, easily made or done ; yielding. 

perfect, to make through ; to complete. 

benefactor, one who makes or does well ; one who helps. 

IV. venio, ventum = to come ; to go 

convene, to come together ; to assemble. 

prevent, to go before ; to hinder. 

intervene, to come between ; to interfere for some end. 

V. verto, versum = to turn 

aversion, the state of turning away ; dislike, 
revert, to turn back ; to return to a former position, 
divert, to turn away ; to amuse. 

VI. duco, dtcctum = to lead ; to bring 

aqueduct, a pipe for leading water (especially for supplying 

a community) from a distance, 
educate, to lead out ; to instruct, 
reduce, to bring down ; to lower. 

Eighth Year — First Half 131 


I. Courage — Bravery 

Courage — Thatqualityof mind which meets danger cabnly. 

Bravery — The quality of being brave or heroic. Courage 
depends on reason ; bravery depends on physical tempera- 
ment. When a small force attacks one superior in numbers, 
the men show bravery; when to serve his cause a soldier 
goes into the camp of the enemy, he shows courage. 

II. Ignorant — Illiterate 

Ignorant — Destitute of education ; unacquainted. 

Illiterate — Having little or no book learning. An illiterate 
man is one who cannot read at all, or one who reads with 

III. Firmness — Constancy 

Firmness — The quality of being resolute. 

Constancy — Calm endurance and determination. Firm- 
ness refers to purpose or resolution; constancy refers to 
the affections. Firmness of character is necessary for 
success in Ufe; constancy between friends has been the 
theme of many poets. 

IV. Genuine — Authentic 

Genuine — Having the character or origin represented. 

Authentic — Entitled to belief; reliable. When a thing 
is genuine it has been produced by the reputed author; 
when a work is authentic it relates facts accurately. We 
speak of genuine art and authentic information. 

132 Eighth Year — First Half 

V. Truth — Veracity 

TfMih — Conformity to fact. 

VeracUy — Habitual regard for the truth. Tridh belongs 
most properly to the thing ; and veracity to the person. One 
may credit the truth of a story, owing to the veracity of the 

VI. Excuse — Pardon 

"Excuse — To free from blame. 

Pardon — To remit the penalty of ; to let pass, as a fault 
or sin, without resentment. We excuse a small fault ; we 
pardon a great oflfense. We show good nature in excusing; 
we exercise generosity in pardoning. 

VII. Conceal — Disguise 

Conceal — To keep purposely from sight or discovery. 

Disguise — To change the appearance so as to make 
recognition difficult. Caution only is requisite in conceal- 
ing; labor and cunning are requisite in disguising. John 
tried to conceal the cake, by putting it behind him. John 
could not disguise the fact that he was telling an untruth. 

VIII. Plentiful — Abundant 

Plentiful — Sufficient for all needs. 

Abundant — Affording an overflowing measure. We 
speak of a plentiful supply of food; and we speak of an 
abundance of riches, of words, of wit, of humor. 


1. Sweet are the uses of adversity, 

Which, Hke the toad, ugly and venomous, 
Wears yet a precious jewel in his head ; 
And this our life, exempt from public haunt, 
Finds tongues in trees, books in the running brooks. 
Sermons in stones, and good in everything. 

— William Shakespeare. 

ad ver'si ty ven'om ous haunt 

toad ex empt' ser'mons 

2. Hear the sledges with the bells — silver bells ! 
What a world of merriment their melody foretells ! 
How they tinkle, tinkle, tinkle. 

In the icy air of night ! 
While the stars that oversprinkle 
All the heavens seem to twinkle 
With a crystalline delight. 

— Edgar A. Poe. 

sledg'es mel'o dy mer'ri ment o ver sprin'kle 
fore tells' tin'kle crys'tal Une 


134 Eighth Year — Second Half 

3. Slavery is but half abolished, emancipation is but half 
completed, while millions of freemen with votes in their 
hands are left without education. Justice to them, the 
safety of the- Republic, the dignity of the elective franchise, 
all alike demand that the still remaining bonds of ignorance 
shall be unloosed, and the minds, as well as the bodies of the 
emancipated, go free. 

— Robert C. Winthrop. 

a bol'ished dig'ni ty fran'chise 

e man ci pa'tion e lect'ive un loosed' 

4. The pinnacle of success in business can only be reached 
by intense application. This concentration has done much 
for our supremacy in the mercantile world. Work, however, 
must be relieved by some form of diversion. Recreation, 
rightly indulged in, strengthens the power of endurance and 
increases the working capacity. 

pin'na cle mer'can tile in tense' su prem'a cy 
in dulged' rec re a'tion ca pac'i ty con cen tra'tion 

5. Banks are an absolute necessity for the transaction of 
business. They oflfer an easy means of borrowing money, 
and of transferring it safely from place to place. They 
provide for the payment of merchandise by check, and 
forward remittances to correspondents with accuracy and 

Eighth Year — Second Half 135 

trans ac'tion bor'row ing trans f er'ring 

re mit'tan ces cor re spond'ents des patch' 

6. In early times banks were simply benches in the mar- 
ket place for exchanging money. When a man became a 
debtor to the extent of being insolvent, his bench was 
broken; hence the word bankrupt, literally "broken 
bench." The greatest financial institution in the world is 
generally conceded to be the Bank of England. 

ex chang'ing debt'or in solv'ent bank'rupt 

lit'er al ly fi nan'cial in sti tu'tion con ce'ded 

7. Formerly banks were used almost exclusively by 
capitalists, corporations, and business men. To-day many 
of their patrons are people in moderate circumstances, who 
find it more expedient to pay their bills by checks, properly 
indorsed, than to carry money about with them. Before 
opening an account these patrons must furnish satisfactory 

ex clu'sive ly pa'trons cor po ra'tions cap'i tal ists 
ex pe'di ent in dorsed' sat is f ac'to ry refer en ces 

8. The policy of the banks now is to have a large munber 
of small accounts. By paying interest on daily balances, by 
transacting business with checks, bank drafts, and other 
negotiable paper, by discounting notes, and by various 
other accommodations the banks oflfer inducements that 
attract a great number of small depositors. 

136 Eighth Year — Second Half. 

pol'i cy bal'an ces ne go'tia ble 

de pos'i tors in duce'ments ac com mo da'tion 
dis'count ing 

9. Whichever way we turn, we are confronted with a 
flooding life which clothes the wood as with a garment, 
constantly rewoven on invisible and inaudible looms. Win- 
ter is concealment, not absence of life ; and the woods are as 
full of potential vitality when the snow covers them as when 
the summer sun strives in vain to penetrate the depths of 

their foliage. 

— Hamilton W. Mabie. 

con f ront'ed in au'di ble vi tal'i ty 

rewo'ven poten'tial fo'liage 

10. The general character of the landscape in southern 
California is amply and truthfully denoted in the objects 
that fill the picture, as you make the journey toward the 
Mexican frontier. The mountains and the ocean, monitors 
of human insignificance and emblems of eternity, are here 
closely confronted; and however much the spirit of the 
spectacle may be modified by inferior adjimcts, the dominant 
note is sublimity. 

— William Winter. 

Cal i f or'ni a Mex'i can in sig nif 'i cance 

em'blems mod'ified ad'juncts 

infe'rior dominant 

Eighth Year — Second Half 137 

11. Do you believe in fairies ? If you do not, you should 
make a pilgrimage to Neveriand in company with our be- 
loved Barrie. He will weave a spell so magical about you, 
that you will renounce all criticism and take seriously the 
fantastic tales about that most mischievous elf — Peter Pan. 

pil'grim age mag'ic al re nounce' crit'i cism 

se'ri ous ly fan tas'tic mis'chie vous 

12. Read the inimitable fairy tale, "Peter and Wendy," 
and follow the career of that eccentric being, Peter Pan — 
the boy who refused to grow up. 

One night when Wendy and her two brothers were asleep 
in their nursery, there flew in through the open window an 
ethereal creature clad in green doublet and hose and accom- 
panied by an imcanny, dancing, jingling spot of Ught. 

in im'i ta ble ca reer' nurs'er y e the're al 

doublet un can'ny ec cen'tric jin'ghng 

13. The children were guarded by Nana, a wonderful 
nurse-dog, that never allowed anyone to molest her charges 
with impunity. Peter thought he had entered with the 
greatest secrecy, but Nana's instinct told her of some dis- 
turbance in the nursery, so she ran into the room as Peter 
escaped through the window. This amazing dog shut 
down the window on Peter's shadow. Peter shrieked, but 
his shadow was left behind. 

138 Eighth Year — Second Half 

im pu'ni ty in'stinct shrieked 

se'cre cy dis turb'ance a maz'ing 

14. One night when no one anticipated his visit, Peter 
Pan, who had been loitering in the treetops, flew into the 
nursery in quest of his shadow. The children were delirious 
with joy, but as they watched Peter, they felt envious of 
him. He volunteered to teach them to fly, and they soon 
learned to imitate him. In the exhilaration of flying, they 
flew out of the window and were off to Neverland on the 
wings of the wind. 

an tic'i pa ted de lir'i ous vol im teered' 

loi'ter ing en'vi ous ex hil a ra'tion 

15. Peter Pan, Captain of the Lost Boys, concealed the 
children in the subterranean home where his band loved to 
dwell. You must, however, read the book for a graphic 
account of their adventures with the fairies, the pirates, and 
the redskins. All boys will love the part where the in- 
vincible Captain Hook was consigned to oblivion by a 
clever ruse of the audacious Peter Pan. 

sub ter ra'ne an pi'rates au da'dous 

graph'ic in vin'ci ble ob liv'i on 

Language work. Write the following words in a column and 
opposite each one write the word from which it is formed : amazing, 
nursery, delirious, envious, fairies, exhilaration, infamous. 

Eighth Year — Second Half 139 

16. J. M. Barrie was born in a small town in Scotland, 
and his charming books and plays portray with surpassing 
delicacy the humor and pathos of village life. "Senti- 
mental Tommy" and "The Little Minister" are even 
better known than "Peter Pan." 

In spite of his literary ability, Barrie is shy and reticent 
and hates to be interviewed. King George recently selected 
Barrie for high honor and made him a knight. 

sur pass'ing 


lit'er a ry 

del'i ca cy 

sen ti men'tal 

ret'i cent 


min'is ter 

in'ter viewed 

17. At thirty, man suspects himself a fool ; 
Knows it at forty, and reforms his plan ; 
At fifty, chides his infamous delay. 
Pushes his prudent purpose to resolve ; 
In all the magnanimity of thought 
Resolves, and re-resolves ; then dies the same. 

— Edward Young. 

reforms' in'famous pru'dent chides 

mag na nim'i ty 

Language work. Make a list of the words on this page that 
illustrate the following rules for capitals : 
Begin with capitals all proper names. 

Begin with capitals the principal words in the titles of books. 
Begin with a capital the first word of every line of poetry. 

140 Eighth Year — Second Half 

18. The proper procedure for amateurs who desire to 
excel in any race or contest is to visit a gymnasium every 
day, and to follow with scrupulous care every direction 
which is given to them. Candidates for athletic honors 
must eat nutritious food, and omit all alcohohc stimulants, 
which are so destructive of bodily tissue. 

pro ce'dure gym na'si \mi can'di dates 

am a teurs' scru'pu lous ath let'ic 

nu tri'tious stim'u lants 

19. Bats fly about at sunset, himting diligently for 
moths and other nocturnal insects which constitute then- 
food. The body of the bat is like that of a mouse, but it 
has wings which bear some resemblance to an umbrella. 
In the fall, when their food supply becomes inadequate, bats 
disappear. Some migrate ; some hide in hollow trees, or in 
other places affording satisfactory shelter. 

dil'i gent ly re sem'blance mi'grate 

noc tur'nal um brel'la in ad'e quate 

Language work. Write a composition on "Athletics for Boys 
and Girls " and cover some of the following topics : 

Benefits of athletic training. 

Dangers of athletic training. 

Describe any gymnasium you have seen. 

Describe the advantages derived from a gymnasium and a trained 

Tell what boys and girls may accomplish without these aids. 

Eighth Year — Second Half 141 

20. Metaphysicians have had their attention turned a 
good deal of late to the automatic and involuntary actions 
of the mind. You forget a name, in conversation, — go on 
talking without making any effort to recall it, — and pres- 
ently the mind evolves it by its own involimtary and im- 
consdous action, while you were pursuing another train of 
thought, and the name rises of itself. 

— Oliver W. Holmes. 

met a phy si'cians in vol'un ta ry 

au to mat'ic e volves' im con'scious 

21. " Irrigation in the Rocky Moxmtains has grown to an 
importance undreamed of by the pioneers. Wealthy com- 
panies have constructed dams in the rivers and carried out 
extensive irrigating ditches over the land they had already 
planned to cultivate. The United States government has 
begim a liberal plan of building dams and reservoirs for the 
storage of water from melting snows and spring floods." 

ir ri ga'tion con struct'ed ex ten'sive 

al read'y cul'ti vate res'er voirs 


Language work. Make an alphabetical list of all the authors 
quoted in the Eighth Year of this book. Beside each name write the 
following facts : his country ; date of birth ; name of one work ; state 
whether he wrote prose or poetry. 

142 Eighth Year — Second Half 

22. In western Nevada there is an irrigating dam built to 
retain, in a huge reservoir, the waters of the spring floods. A 
series of ditches distributes this water, in the most economical 
manner, to the land to be reclaimed. Thousands of acres 
of this land are sold to homesteaders for small farms, thereby 
converting arid places into fertile, populqus towns. 

ec o nom'ic al re claimed' con vert'ing there by' 
home'stead ers ar'id pop'u lous 

23. History must accord Lincoln a rare sagacity in guid- 
ing a great people through the perils of a mighty revolution ; 
a skillful discernment and courageous seizure of the golden 
moment to free his nation from the incubus of slavery; 
faithful adherence to law, and conscientious moderation in 
the use of power. 

— Colonel J. G. Nicolay. 

sa gac'i ty guid'ing dis cem'ment in'cu bus 

skiU'f ul sei'zure con sci en'tious ad her'ence 

24. "Conservation of natural resources" is a phrase cal- 
culated to express foresight and restraint in the exploitation 
of the physical sources of natural wealth. This economy is 
exercised for the perpetuity of civilization and the welfare 
of present and future generations. 

con ser va'tion re sour'ces cal'cu la ted re straint' 
ex ploi ta'tion phys'ic al e con'o my per pe tu'i ty 

Eighth Year — Second Half 143 

26. The expression "natural resources " corresponds 
approximately to "land" and embraces the earth's sur- 
face with its forests and other vegetable crops; the vast 
treasury of mineral deposits within it ; and also the waters 
on the earth's surface considered as an available means of 
transportation and an obvious source of food and power. 

ap prox'i mate ly em bra'ces treas'ur y min'er al 
trans por ta'tion a vail'a ble ob'vi ous 

26. Sediment washed from the banks of the Mississippi 
River has formed a delta where the river empties into the 
gulf. This obstruction hampers navigation, so jetties have 
been built to confine the current by artificial means, and thus 
deepen the channel. 

sed'iment Mississip'pi del'ta emp'ties 

ob struc'tion nav i ga'tion jet'ties ar ti fi'cial 

27. Shakespeare's youth fell in a time when the English 
people were importimate for dramatic entertainments. 
The court took offense easily at political allusions, and at- 
tempted to suppress them. The Puritans desired to sup- 
press them, but the people wanted them. Inn yards, houses 
without roofs, and extemporaneous enclosures at coimtry 
fairs, were the ready theaters of strolling players. 

— Ralph W. Emerson. 

im por'tu nate dra ma'tic of f ense' po lit'ic al 

ex tem po ra'ne ous Pu'ri tans al lu'sions stroll'ing 

144 Eighth Year — Second Half 

28. In some states when the legislature passes a law 
affecting a municipality, the bill must be submitted to the 
mayor of the dty for his approval. If it is acceptable to 
the city authorities, the mayor signs it, and it then goes to 
the chief executive of the state. If, however, either the 
mayor or the governor vetoes a bill, the legislature must 
again take a ballot upon the question. 

leg'is la ture mu nic i pal'i ty ap prov'al 

may'or bal'lot ve'toes 

29. The man who adulterates food with death-dealing 
drugs, and then puts upon it a label guaranteeing its purity, 
is guilty of the most atrocious kind of hypocrisy and is an 
assassin, no less than the villain who strikes down his un- 
suspecting victim. 

a dul'ter ates a tro'cious villain guar an tee'ing 
hyp oc'ri sy as sas'sin vic'tim 

30. " If an iminterested spectator, after a careful perusal 
of the New Testament, were asked what he conceived to be 
its distinguishing characteristic, he would reply without 
hesitation, ^That wonderful spirit of philanthropy by which 
it is distinguished.' It is a perpetual conunentary on that 
sublime aphorism — God is love.'' 

pe ru'sal con ceived' com'men ta ry 

tes'ta ment phi lan'thro py aph'o rism 

Eighth Year — Second Half 145 


A suffix is a word or syllable added to another word to 
modify its meaning. 

I. ate = one who ; to make ; to give ; having 

potentate (posse), one who has power ; a niler. 
facilitate (facilis), to make easy; to lessen labor, 
fortunate (fortuna), having chance or fortune; lucky. 

II. age = state of being ; a collection of ; an allowance for 

bondage, state of being in bonds ; captivity, 
baggage, a collection of bags ; luggage, 
ferriage, an allowance for crossing a ferry. 

in. we, ize = to make 

criticize, to make criticism ; to pass judgment on. 
advertise (verto, versum), to make people turn to ; to com- 
mend to the public, 
legalize, to make legal ; to make lawful. 

rV. ee = one who ; one to whom 

absentee, one who is absent. 

assignee, one to whom property is intrusted ; a trustee. 

refugee (fugio, fugitum), one who flees to a refuge. 

V. aw5, eous^ ious = full of ; worthy of 

perilous, full of perils ; dangerous. 

piteous, full of pity; mournful; worthy of pity. 

curious (cura), full of care; inquisitive. 

146 Eighth Year — Second Half 

VI. a/ = like ; pertaining to ; befitting 

magical, like magic ; produced as if by unearthly power. 

filial, relating to or befitting a son or daughter. 

rural (rus), pertaining to the country ; suited to the country. 


A prefix is a word or syllable put before another word to 
modify its meaning. 

I. mis = wrong ; wrongly 

misconduct, wrong conduct, 
misjudge, to judge wrongly, 
misgovern, to govern wrongly. 

II. trans = across ; beyond ; through 

transatlantic, across or beyond the Atlantic, 
transfer (fero, latum), to bear across ; to remove, 
transparent (pareo, paritum), appearing through; clear. 

III. siJb (sue, sufj sugj sup) = under ; after 

subscribe (scribo, scriptum), to write xmder; to pledge, 
succeed (cedo, cessum), to go xmder ; to follow or come after, 
support (porto, portatum), to carry imder, to maintain. 

IV. auto = self 

automobile, a machine that moves by itself, 
autobiography, the story of one's life written by himself, 
autocrat (kratos), one who has strength by Mmself. 

Eighth Year — Second Half 147 

V. dia = through ; across ; between 

diameter (metron), the measure through ; a line through the 
center of a figure terminating at the boundary. 

diagnosis (gignosko), knowing between; process of deter- 
mining disease. 

dialect (lego, lectum), speaking between; peculiar form of 

VI. syn (sy, syl, sym) = together ; with 

synopsis (opto, opsis), a view together; a summary. 

system (hystemi), that which stands together; an orderly 

sympathy (pathos), a state of feeling with another; com- 


A stem is a foundation word to which prefixes and suflSxes 
may be added. The most important stems used in our 
language are taken from the Latin and the Greek. 

I. flecto, flexum = to bend ; to turn 

inflexible, that cannot be bent ; unyielding ; firm. 

reflect, to turn back ; to think. 

deflection, act of turning from the true course. 

II. cedo, cessum = to go ; to yield 

intercede, to go between ; to plead with another, 
antecedent, going before ; that which precedes, 
excess, that which goes beyond ; more than enough. 

148 Eighth Year — Second Half 

in. frango^ fractum = to break 

fraction, the state of being broken ; a broken part. 

fragile, easily broken. 

infraction, the act of breaking ; a violation. 

IV. jacio, jactum (jiciOy jectum) = to throw or cast 

deject, to cast down ; to depress, 
ejaculate, to throw out ; to utter abruptly, 
interjection, that which is thrown between or among; an 

V. mittOy missum = to send 

emit, to send out ; to discharge or utter, 
transmit, to send over ; to transfer, 
permission, act of sending through ; consent. 

VI. specio {spicio)y spectum = to behold ; to look 

prospect, a looking forward ; a view 
respect, to look back ; to treat with esteem, 
conspicuous, full of looking together ; noticeable. 

Eighth Year — Second Half 149 


Synonyms are words of like significance in the main; 
with a large extent of ground which they occupy in common, 
but also something of their own, private and peculiar, which 
they do not share with one another. 

From Trench's Lectures "On the Study of Words." 

I. Talent — Genius 

Taleni — Marked mental ability. 

Genius — Great intellectual power, capable of operating 
independently of training. Talent is largely the capacity 
to learn or acquire ; genitis is higher than talent and more 
spontaneous; it is creative. One may have a talent for 
acquiring languages. Napoleon was a miUtary genius. 

II. Contrivance — Device 

Contrivance — Something invented or adapted for a special 

Device — An instrument formed with intelligence and 
design. A contrivance serves to supply a deficiency; a 
device is employed to extricate from danger, to remove an 
evil or to forward a scheme. A boy might make a simple 
contrivance to keep the door from closing. Soldiers use 
many devices to deceive the enemy. 

III. Ridicule — Deride 

Ridicule — To make fun of. 

Deride — To treat with scorn, either by sneers or con- 
temptuous laughter. One who ridicules a person or things 

150 Eighth Year — Second Half 

usually does so by words alone; one who derides another 
shows contempt by some action, as laughter. Derision is 
a stronger term than ridicule and always accompanied by 
decided personal feeling. One may ridicule wearing ap- 
parel or personal pecxiliarities. An audience may deride 
one who proves a poor actor. 

IV. Defend — Protect 

Defend — To shield from attack or violence. 

Protect — To keep from harm, temptation, or any evil. 
Persons may defend others without distinction of rank; 
none but persons having power can protect others. A soldier 
defends his country; a prince protects his subjects. A 
fortress is defended by its gims and protected by its walls. 

V. Difficult — Arduous 

Difficult — Hard to do or be done. 

Arduous — Involving great labor. That which is diffi^ 
cult may be conquered simply by great labor ; but what is 
arduous cannot be effected without great mental power. 
It may be difficult to solve a problem. Great learning can 
only be won by arduous toil. 

VI. Accoimt — Narrative 

Account — A record, as of facts or events. 

Narrative — An orderly, continuous account of the par- 
ticulars of an event or series of events. One may give an 
account of political events, domestic occurrences, etc. ; a 
narrative is chiefly personal, respecting accidents or adven- 

Eighth Year — Second Half 151 

tures of individuals. One may give a detailed account of a 
fire or an accident. The soldier gave an interesting narra- 
tive of the events of the war. 

VII. Acquire — Obtain 

Acquire — To get by endeavor, practice, or purchase. 

Obtain — To procure; to get. We acquire by our own 
efforts; we obtain by the efforts of others as well as our- 
selves. What we acquire usually comes by a slow bxiilding 
up ; but things may be obtained by any means. One may 
acquire a language or a fortime; another may obtain a 
fortune by cheating his partner. 

VIII. Economy — Frugality 

Economy — Disposition to save. 

Frugality — Sparing use of money or goods. Economy 
is a wise and careful use of means at one's disposal ; frugality 
is a sparing use of money, food, etc., to a noticeable and 
often to a painful degree. A wise woman practices economy 
in the household. We may also speak of an economy of 
words. Frugality may be necessary, but if practiced for its , 
own sake, it becomes miserliness. 


Rule i 

The plural of nouns is regularly formed by adding s or es 
to the singular; as hill, hills; desk, desks; fish, fishes; 
peach, peaches. 

Rule 2 

When a noun ends with y preceded by a vowel, the plural 
is formed by adding s in the regular way ; as, boy, boys ; 
chimney, chimneys ; turkey, turkeys ; valley, valleys. 

Rule 3 

When a noun ends with y preceded by a consonant, the 
plural is formed by changing y to i, and adding es; as, 
liberty, liberties; family, famihes; history, histories; 
berry, berries. 

Rule 4 

Most noims ending iaforfe form the plural by adding s 
in the regular way; as, roof, roofs; grief, griefs; hand- 
kerchief, handkerchiefs ; safe, safes. 

Rule 5 

Some noims ending in/ orfe form the plural by changing 
f tov and adding s or es; as, life, lives ; knife, knives ; leaf, 
leaves ; calf, calves ; shelf, shelves. 


Eighth Year — Second Half 153 

Rule 6 

When a noun ends in (?, the plural is generally formed by 

adding s\ as, piano, pianos; solo, solos; banjo, banjos; 

cuckoo, cuckoos. 

Rule 7 

Some noxms that end in form the plural by adding es ; 
as, potato, potatoes ; mosqxiito, mosquitoes ; cargo, cargoes ; 
negro, negroes ; tomato, tomatoes. 

Rule 8 

Most words ending in silent e drop the e before a suflBx 
beginning with a vowel; as, move, moving; change, chang- 
ing; notice, noticing; love, lovable; insure, insurance. 

Exceptions to Rule 8 













Rule 9 

Monosyllables and words accented on the last syllable, 
ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel 
double the final consonant before a suflSx beginning with a 
vowel; as, begin, beginning; run, nmning; put, putting; 
shop, shopping ; prefer, preferred. 

Tell why the final /, r, and t are not doubled in the fol- 
lowing words : reveal, revealed ; limit, limited ; slumber, 
slimabering ; benefit, benefited. 

Printed in the United States of America.